|English||five precepts, five virtues|
ပဉ္စသီလ ငါးပါးသီလ |
(IPA: [pjɪ̀ɴsa̰ θìla̰ ŋá bá θìla̰])
五戒 pinyin: wǔjiè|
(Cantonese Jyutping: ng5 gaai3)
(rōmaji: go kai)
|Khmer||km:សិក្ខាបទ៥, សីល៥, បញ្ចសីលា|
သဳ မသုန် |
เบญจศีล, ปัญจศีล, ศีลห้า |
(rtgs: Benchasin, Panchasin, Sin Ha)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
The Five Precepts (Pali: pañcasīlāni; Sanskrit pañcaśīlāni) constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken by upāsaka and upāsikā ("lay followers") of Buddhism. The precepts in all the traditions are essentially identical and are commitments to abstain from harming living beings, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication. A precept is a general rule intended to regulate behaviour or thought.
Undertaking the five precepts is part of both lay Buddhist initiation and regular lay Buddhist devotional practices. They are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that lay people undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice.
Additionally, in the Theravada schools of Buddhism, the bhikkhuni lineage died out, and women renunciates practicing Theravadin Buddhism have developed unofficial options for their own practice, dedicating their life to religion, vowing celibacy, living an ascetic life and holding eight or ten precepts. They occupy a position somewhere between that of an ordinary lay follower and an ordained monastic and similar to that of the sāmaṇerī. In Thailand, they are called maechi (Thai: แม่ชี, IPA: [mɛ̂ː tɕʰiː]); in Sri Lanka, they are dasa sil mata; the Burmese thilashin are also now found in Nepalese Theravadin Buddhism as well; and in South East England, the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery founded by Ajahn Chah has siladhara.
Pali training rules
The following are the five precepts (pañca-sikkhāpada) or five virtues (pañca-sīla) rendered in English and Pali:
For more on the first precept, see ahimsa. In the fifth precept sura, meraya and majja are kinds of alcoholic beverages. In some modern translations, Surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā, is rendered more broadly, variously, as, intoxicants, liquor and drugs, etc.
In the Pāli Canon, the following typifies elaborations that accompany these identified training rules:
There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man.
There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, "Come & tell, good man, what you know": If he doesn't know, he says, "I don't know." If he does know, he says, "I know." If he hasn't seen, he says, "I haven't seen." If he has seen, he says, "I have seen." Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech.
And how is one made impure in three ways by bodily action? There is the case where a certain person takes life, is a hunter, bloody-handed, devoted to killing & slaying, showing no mercy to living beings. He takes what is not given. He takes, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them. He engages in sensual misconduct. He gets sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man. This is how one is made impure in three ways by bodily action.
In the Pāli Canon, the Buddha describes the Five Precepts as gifts toward oneself and others:
Now, there are these five gifts, five great gifts — original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning — that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. Which five?
There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from taking life.
In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings.
In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression.
This is the first gift, the first great gift — original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests...
Chinese Mahayana texts
One ceremonial version of the precepts can be found in the Treatise on Taking Refuge and the Precepts (simplified Chinese: 归戒要集; traditional Chinese: 歸戒要集; pinyin: Guījiè Yāojí). In recitation, the characters 某甲 should be substituted with your name:
1. As all Buddhas refrained from killing until the end of their lives, so I too will refrain from killing until the end of my life.
2. As all Buddhas refrained from stealing until the end of their lives, so I too will refrain from stealing until the end of my life.
3. As all Buddhas refrained from sexual misconduct until the end of their lives, so I too will refrain from sexual misconduct until the end of my life.
4. As all Buddhas refrained from false speech until the end of their lives, so I too will refrain from false speech until the end of my life.
5. As all Buddhas refrained from alcohol until the end of their lives, so I too will refrain from alcohol until the end of my life.
The same treatise outlines the option of undertaking fewer than all five precepts, though nearly all modern ceremonies involve undertaking all five precepts. Certainly, committing more skillful and fewer unskillful actions is beneficial. But before entering nirvana, the Buddha said his disciples should take the precepts as their teacher, so few ceremonies are held for partial precept undertaking. There are exceptions, however.
In concise terms, the late Dharma Master Yin-Shun, listed the Five Precepts simply as (translation by Wing H. Yeung, M.D.):
- "Do not kill." (Unintentional killing is considered less offensive)
- "Do not steal." (Including misappropriating someone's property)
- "Do not engage in improper sexual conduct." (e.g. sexual contact not sanctioned by secular laws, the Buddhist monastic code, or by one's parents and guardians)
- "Do not make false statements." (Also includes pretending to know something one doesn't)
- "Do not drink alcohol."
Different Buddhist traditions adhere to other lists of precepts that have some overlap with the Five Precepts. The precise wording and application of any of these vows is different by tradition.
Lay Buddhist Practices
The Eight Precepts are for upāsakas and upāsikās who wish to practice Buddhism more strictly than through adherence to the five precepts. The eight precepts focus both on avoiding morally bad behaviour, as do the five precepts, and on leading a more ascetic life.
- I undertake to abstain from causing harm and taking life (both human and non-human).
- I undertake to abstain from taking what is not given (for example stealing, displacements that may cause misunderstandings).
- I undertake to abstain from sexual activity.
- I undertake to abstain from wrong speech: telling lies, deceiving others, manipulating others, using hurtful words.
- I undertake to abstain from using intoxicating drinks and drugs, which lead to carelessness.
- I undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is after sunrise, before noon).
- I undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
- I undertake to abstain from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping, and overindulging in sleep.
In Theravada Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, laypersons will often spend one day a week (on the Uposatha days: the new moon, first-quarter moon, full moon and last-quarter moon days) living in a vihara and practicing the eight precepts.
- Refrain from killing living creatures.
- Refrain from stealing.
- Refrain from unchastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust).
- Refrain from incorrect speech.
- Refrain from taking intoxicants.
- Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
- Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
- Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
- Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
- Refrain from accepting money.
Lay followers undertake these training rules at the same time as they become Buddhists. In Mahayana schools a lay practitioner who has taken the precepts is called an upāsaka or upāsikā (layman or laywoman). In Theravada Buddhism, any lay follower is in theory called an upāsaka or upāsikā; in practice, everyone is expected to take the precepts.
- Anagarika – one who keeps the Eight Precepts on a more permanent basis, or as preparation to ordain.
- Buddhist initiation ritual
- Dhammika Sutta
- Patimokkha – 227 rules for monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis)
- In Pali and Sanskrit, "five precepts" is more literally translated as pañca-sikkhāpada and pañca-sikśāpada, respectively. Thus, for instance, Harvey (2007, p. 199) translates pañca-sīla as "five virtues."
- Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey, ed., Buddhism. Continuum, 2001, page 187.
- Nancy J. Barnes (1996). Christopher S. Queen; Sallie B. King, eds. Buddhist Women and the Nuns' Order in Asia. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist liberation movements in Asia. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0791428436.
- Karma Lekshe Tsomo (2008). Buddhist Women in a Global Multicultural Community. Malaysia: Sukhi Hotu Dhamma Publications. p. 227.
- As indicated in the translation below, sikkhāpada is also translated as "training rule" (e.g., Gunaratana, 2007) and "rule of training" (e.g., Harvey, 2007, p. 199; and, Khantipalo, 1982/95).
- "Access to Insight: the Panca Sila (with Pali)". Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Buddhist Ethics". buddhanet. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- The Pali can be found, for instance, in Elgiriye Indaratana (2002), p. 2.
- "Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta" [To Cunda the Silversmith]. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. 1997. AN 10.176. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Sammā-diṭṭhi Sutta" [Right View]. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. 2005. MN 9. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Abhisanda Sutta" [Rewards]. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. 1997. AN 8.39. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- AN 8.40 (Thanissaro, 1997c).
- AN 4.111 "Kesi Sutta: To Kesi the Horsetrainer" (Thanissaro, 1997)
- "CBETA T18 No. 916¡m¨ü¤§Ù¤K§Ù¤å¡n¨÷1". Cbeta.org. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "CBETA T24 No. 1488¡mÀu±C¶ë§Ù¸g¡n¨÷3". Cbeta.org. 2008-08-30. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "CBETA X60 No. 1129¡mÂk§Ùn¶°¡n¨÷3". Cbeta.org. 2008-08-30. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- starting on line 0682c05(07)
- line p0019a07(06)
- "Welcome to American Zen Buddhist Temple - Vairocana Monastery". Azbt.us. 2003-03-09. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas". Dharmasite.net. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Yin-Shun, Venerable (1998). Wing H. Yeung, M.D., ed. The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master. Wisdom Publications. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-231-11286-6.
- Anguttara Nikaya 8.43
- Anguttara Nikaya 3.70
- "The Ten Precepts: dasa-sila", edited by Access to Insight. Access to Insight, 26 May 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sila/dasasila.html . Retrieved on 20 September 2013.
- Aitken, Robert (1984). The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics. NY: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-158-4.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi (1994–95). Dhamma and Non-duality. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-11-09 from "Access to Insight" (1998) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bodhi/bps-essay_27.html.
- Bhante Gunaratana (2007). Taking the Eight Lifetime Precepts. Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Bhavana Society" at http://www.bhavanasociety.org/resource/taking_the_eight_lifetme_precepts/.
- Elgiriye Indaratana Maha Thera (2002). Vandanā: The Album of Pāḷi Devotional Chanting & Hymns. Penang, Malaysia: Mahindarama Dhamma Publication. Retrieved 2008-02-16 from "Buddha Dharma Education Association" at http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/vandana02.pdf.
- Harvey, Peter (2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
- Khantipalo (1982). Lay Buddhist Practice: The Shrine Room, Uposatha Day, Rains Residence (Wheel No. 206/207). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" (1995) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khantipalo/wheel206.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Abhisanda Sutta: Rewards (AN 8.39). Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an08/an08.039.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta: To Cunda the Silversmith (AN 10.176). Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an10/an10.176.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997c). Vipaka Sutta: Results (AN 8.40). Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an08/an08.040.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2006). Getting the Message. Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/gettingmessage.html.
- "In This Very Life: The Liberation Teachings of the Buddha" by Sayadaw U. Pandita, A Buddhist Library 1992
- Bullitt, John T. (2005). The Five Precepts: Pañca-sila. Retrieved 2008-02-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/pancasila.html.
- Eight precepts at Access to Insight website
- The Ten Precepts on Access to Insight website
- Buddhist Precepts, search for "Samanerasikkha"