969 Movement

969 Movement
၉၆၉ သင်္ကေတ
Leader Ashin Wirathu
Type Nationalistic organisation
Origin  Myanmar
Political ideology Opposition to Islam, Buddhist revivalism
Religion Buddhism

The 969 Movement (Burmese: ၉၆၉ သင်္ကေတ) is a nationalist movement[1] opposed to what they see as Islam’s expansion in predominantly-Buddhist Burma.[2][3] The three digits of 969 "symbolise the virtues of the Buddha, Buddhist practices and the Buddhist community."[1][2][4] The first 9 stands for the nine special attributes of the Lord Buddha and the 6 for the six special attributes of his Dharma, or Buddhist Teachings, and the last 9 represents the nine special attributes of Buddhist Sangha [clergy]. Those special attributes are the Three Jewels of the Buddha. In the past, the Buddha, Sangha, Dhamma, the wheel of Dhamma, and "969" were Buddhist signs. [5]

The movement has inspired strong reactions within[6] and beyond Myanmar. In the international media it has received criticism. The Straits Times reported that Ashin Wirathu, the movement's leader, responded to recent anti-Muslim violence with pledges to work for peace but critics remain sceptical.[7]

Various media organizations have described the movement as being anti-Muslim or "Islamophobic."[8][9][10][11] The movement's Myanmar Buddhist supporters deny it is anti-Muslim, with Bhikkhu Wirathu stating it is a protective movement about targeting "Bengalis who are terrorizing ethnic Rakhine (Buddhists)."[12] Alex Bookbinder, in The Atlantic, links the movement's origins in a book written in the late 1990s by U Kyaw Lwin, a functionary in the Ministry of Religious Affairs, and its precepts are rooted in a traditional belief in numerology. Across South Asia, Muslims represent the phrase "In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful" with the number 786, and businesses display the number to indicate that they are Muslim-owned. 969's proponents see this as a Muslim plot to conquer Burma in the 21st century, based on the premise that 7 plus 8 plus 6 is equal to 21. The number 969 is intended to be 786's cosmological opposite.[1]


Main article: Ashin Wirathu

Wirathu is regarded as the movement's highest protector. It has been reported that he advocates the boycott of shops owned by Muslims.[13][14][15] Wirathu has himself stated that the movement has been treated as a scapegoat by being unfairly blamed for events like the 2012 Rakhine State riots, and maintains that "969 is not violent."[4] The Asia Times Online has described him as a "complex figure" who demonises Muslims, but also protests police violence.[3] An article in The Straits Times says a source indicated that Wirathu had changed his tone and "pledged to promote peace among religious communities."[16]

The cover story of the 20 June 2013 issue of Time magazine called Wirathu "The Face of Buddhist Terror".[17] “You can be full of kindness and love, but you cannot sleep next to a mad dog,” Wirathu said, referring to Muslims. “If we are weak,” he said, “our land will become Muslim.”[2] "Some people misunderstood the title [of the Time article] ... seeing it as an insult to religion,” said Dr. Yan Myo Thein, a political analyst. “They believe it’s equating Buddhism with terrorism.”[18] After the publication of the Time article, Wirathu denied responsibility for anti-Muslim violence.[19] Shortly after, the June 2013 issue of Time featuring Wirathu was banned in Myanmar.[20]

Burma's government has objected to the magazine article. Authorities deny they are defending the monk, Wirathu, but said they were concerned the article could create problems after recent unrest between Buddhists and Muslims. Burmese President Thein Sein, however, has defended Wirathu, saying the monk's order was striving for peace and prosperity and that the report undermined efforts to rebuild trust between faiths. "The government is currently striving with religious leaders, political parties, media and the people to rid Myanmar [Burma] of unwanted conflicts," he added.[21] Wirathu has said that the Time article was not against Buddhism, just against him. In an interview with The Irrawaddy magazine, he also alleged Muslim extremists were behind the article and planning to wage jihad against Burma.[22]

Hundreds of protesters took to the streets of Yangon early in the afternoon on 30 June 2013 in a peaceful demonstration against Time magazine's article on senior monk U Wirathu and the 969 movement he leads. Marching monks held a banner proclaiming that U Wirathu is "Not The Terrorist, But The Protector of Race, Language and The Religion". Speaking to Mizzima News, one demonstrator, a 51-year-old office manager, said, "TIME Magazine is wrong. He [Wirathu] is peaceful. Every monk is a peacemaker. The Buddhist religion wants brotherhood with everyone."[23]

In September 2014 Ashin Wirathu attended a "Great Sangha Conference" in Colombo organised by Bodu Bala Sena. Ashin Wirathu said that his 969 Movement would work with the Bodu Bala Sena.[24]


The movement is seeking to draft a law that would forbid Buddhist women from marrying non-Buddhist men without the permission of local officials.[25] Dhammapiya, a senior monk who helped write the original proposal for the laws, said they were meant to encourage peace between different faiths and to "protect" Buddhist women from being forced to covert to Islam when they married Muslim men. Government religious regulatory authorities, while supporting the protection of the Buddhist faith from perceived Islamic threats, reject the legal initiatives of the 969 movement and "prohibited the creation of formal organisations" based on 969 principles.[26]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 "969: The Strange Numerological Basis for Burma's Religious Violence - Alex Bookbinder". The Atlantic. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 "Extremism builds among Myanmar's Buddhists | Seattle Times Newspaper". Seattletimes.com. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  3. 1 2 Matthew J Walton (2 April 2013). "Buddhism turns violent in Myanmar". Asia Times.
  4. 1 2 "Root Out the Source of Meikhtila Unrest". Irrawaddy.org. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  5. "Nationalist Monk U Wirathu Denies Role in Anti-Muslim Unrest". Irrawaddy.org. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  6. "Monks speak out against misuse of '969'". Mmtimes.com. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  7. Nirmal Ghosh (1 Apr 2013). "Anti-Muslim monk changes tack, vows to promote peace". The Straits Times.
  8. Downs, Ray (27 March 2013). "Is Burma's Anti-Muslim Violence Led by Buddhist Neo-Nazis ?". Vice.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  9. Sardina, Carlos (10 May 2013). "Who are the monks behind Burma's '969′ campaign? | DVB Multimedia Group". Dvb.no. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  10. Lindsay Murdoch (15 April 2013). "Anti-Muslim movement hits Myanmar". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  11. "Myanmar's extremist Buddhists get free rein". Nation.com.pk. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  12. "Religious radicals driving "Myanmar's" unrest". Global Post. 31 March 2013.
  13. Hodal, Kate; Khalili, Mustafa; Salfield, Alice (16 April 2013). "Burma's Bin Laden, the Buddhist monk who fuels hatred - video | World news". London: theguardian.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  14. "Fanatical Buddhist Monk Saydaw Wirathu Calling for Boycott of Myanmar Muslims [VIDEO] - IBTimes UK". Ibtimes.co.uk. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  15. "The 'Burmese bin Laden' fomenting violence against Myanmar's Muslims | The National". Thenational.ae. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  16. Ghosh, Nirmal. "Outspoken anti-Muslim monk pledges to promote peace in Myanmar". Straitstimes.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  17. Beech, Hannah (1 July 2013). "The Buddhist Monks Advocating Intolerance in Asia". TIME. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  18. "Myanmar Monk Rejects Terrorist Label Following Communal Clashes". Rfa.org. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  19. Williams, Alex (28 June 2013). "Myanmar bans TIME Magazine over 'Buddhist Terror' cover story (video)". Inside Investor. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  20. "BBC News - Burmese leader defends 'anti Muslim' monk Ashin Wirathu". Bbc.co.uk. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  21. Daniel Schearf. "Burma Objects to Time Magazine Criticism". Voanews.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  22. "Ashin Wirathu Thera of Myanmar to work with BBS". Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 28 September 2014.
  23. "Buddhism v Islam in Asia: Fears of a new religious strife". The Economist. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  24. Jared Ferrie and Min Zayar Oo (11 September 2013). "Myanmar Buddhist committee bans anti-Muslim organizations". Reuters. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
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