Not to be confused with Epibatidine.
Clinical data
Trade names Integrilin
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a601210
License data
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
IV only
ATC code B01AC16 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability n/a
Protein binding ~25%
Biological half-life ~2.5 hours
Excretion Renal
CAS Number 188627-80-7 YesY
PubChem (CID) 123610
DrugBank DB00063 YesY
ChemSpider 10482060 YesY
UNII NA8320J834 YesY
KEGG D06888 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:291902 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.169.160
Chemical and physical data
Formula C35H49N11O9S2
Molar mass 831.96 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

Eptifibatide (Integrilin, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, also co-promoted by Schering-Plough/Essex), is an antiplatelet drug of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor class.[1] Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide derived from a protein found in the venom of the southeastern pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri). It belongs to the class of the arginin-glycin-aspartat-mimetics and reversibly binds to platelets. Eptifibatide has a short half-life. The drug is the third inhibitor of GPIIb/IIIa that has found broad acceptance after the specific antibody abciximab and the non-peptide tirofiban entered the global market.

Integrilin is sold in two strengths, globally: vials containing 2 mg/ml (20 mg totally) and 0.75 mg/ml (75 mg totally). A third size is sold in the US: 100 ml vials containing 2 mg/ml (200 mg totally).


Eptifibatide is used to reduce the risk of acute cardiac ischemic events (death and/or myocardial infarction) in patients with unstable angina or non-ST-segment-elevation (e.g., non-Q-wave) myocardial infarction (i.e., non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes) both in patients who are to receive non surgery (conservative) medical treatment and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

The drug is usually applied together with aspirin or clopidogrel and (low molecular weight or unfractionated) heparin. Additionally, the usual supportive treatment consisting of applications of nitrates, beta-blockers, opioid analgesics and/or benzodiazepines should be employed as indicated. Angiographic evaluation and other intensive diagnostic procedures may be considered a first line task before initiating therapy with eptifibatide.

The drug should exclusively be used in hospitalized patients both because of the serious degree of patients' illness and because of the possible side-effects of eptifibatide.

Contraindications and precautions

Side effects

Patients receiving eptifibatide are typically seriously ill and most of them are concomitantly treated with other drugs known to have the potential to cause significant side effects. Therefore, not all side effects listed as follows may be attributable to eptifibatide treatment alone:

The major adverse event in the PURSUIT study was severe bleeding. Bleeding occurred as well at sites of clinical intervention (local sites) as at other sites (systemically) like urogenital bleedings. Sometimes, these events were severe enough to require transfusion of blood or plasma concentrates to stop bleeding and counteract anemia. Severe bleedings occurred in 4.4 and 4.7% of patients respectively depending on the infusion rate (0.5 µg/kg/min vs. 0.75 µg/kg/min). A few cases of death due to severe bleeding events attributable to drug therapy were reported. No cases of hemorrhagic stroke were seen. Thrombocytopenia of unknown origin (allergic reaction?) was also noticed in 0.2% of patients.

Additionally, hypotension was seen frequently (6%). Cardiovascular failure was also frequent (2%) as were serious arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation 1.5%, atrial fibrillation 6%). Severe allergic (anaphylactic) reactions occurred in almost 0.2% of patients. These reactions can be life-threatening and may be due to the peptide character of eptifibatide. Other side effects were rare and mild in nature and may not be connected to eptifibatide therapy.

Dosage regimen

The recommended adult dosage is an i.v. loading dose of 180 µg/kg over 1 to 2 minutes immediately after diagnosis, followed by continuous i.v.-infusion of 2 µg/kg per minute until either hospital discharge or initiation of coronary artery bypass grafting, or for up to 72 hours. At least 4 hours before discharge all local or systemic bleedings should have been controlled and terminated.

Patients weighing >120 kg should receive a maximum bolus of 22.6 mg followed by a maximum infusion rate of 15 mg/h. Patients with renal impairment evidenced by CrCl <50 ml/min should receive the standard 180 µg/kg loading dose followed by infusion at 1 µg/kg/min.

Study results

Eptifibatide was licensed due to the positive results of the so-called PURSUIT study encompassing 10,948 patients. In this study all patients had suffered either unstable angina or a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Significantly fewer patients developed a myocardial infarction under therapy with eptifibatide. Death rates showed a tendency in favor of eptifibatide, but this superiority was not statistically significant.

Additional information

Sometimes the treating physicians require the patient after discharge from hospital to continue treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel for a few weeks, some months or even for life (as usually is the case with aspirin) to prevent recurrence of symptoms, development of myocardial infarction and/or death related to cardiovascular disease. This advice should be strictly followed. Eptifibatide is one of very many antiplatelet drugs that all have different consequences on the platelet's activity.


Eptifibatide was discovered by a team lead by Robert M. Scarborough [2] and David Phillips, at COR Therapeutics which was acquired by Millennium Pharmaceuticals in 2001.

See also


  1. Gordon W. Gribble (15 December 2010). Heterocyclic Scaffolds II: Indoles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications. Springer. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-3-642-15732-5. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  2. Erin Allday (August 1, 2006). "Robert Scarborough Jr. -- helped discover important heart drugs". sfgate.com.
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