Shanghai Metro

Shanghai Metro
Owner Shanghai Municipal Government
Locale Shanghai and Kunshan, Jiangsu
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 14[note 1]
Number of stations 364[note 2]
Daily ridership 8.41 million (2015 avg.)[1]
11.299 million (record)[2]
Annual ridership 3.068 billion (2015)[1]
Began operation May 28, 1993 (1993-05-28)
Operator(s) Shanghai Shentong Metro Group
System length 588 km (365.4 mi)[3][note 1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification DC 1500 V overhead line; (Line 16) DC 1500 V third-rail
System map

Shanghai Metro
Simplified Chinese 上海轨道交通
Traditional Chinese 上海軌道交通
Literal meaning Shanghai Rail Transit
Commonly abbreviated as
Simplified Chinese 上海地铁
Traditional Chinese 上海地鐵
Literal meaning Shanghai Subway

The Shanghai Metro is a rapid transit system in Shanghai, China, operating urban and suburban rail transit services to 13 of its 16 municipal districts (except Fengxian, Jinshan and Chongming) and to Huaqiao Town, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. Opening in 1993 with full-scale construction extending back to 1986, Shanghai Metro is the third oldest rapid transit system in China, after the Beijing Subway and the Tianjin Metro. It has seen substantial growth, significantly during the years leading up to the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, and is still expanding, with its most recent expansions having opened in December 2015. It is the largest component of the Shanghai metropolitan rail transit network, together with the Shanghai Maglev Train, the Zhangjiang Tram and the China Railway-operated commuter rail services to Jinshan and to Nanhui New City in Pudong. The metro system is also heavily tied with other forms of public transport in Shanghai.

Currently, the Shanghai Metro system is the world's largest rapid transit system by route length[4][5][6][7][8] and second largest by number of stations[note 2] with 14 lines[note 1] and 364 stations totaling 588 kilometres (365 mi).[9][note 1] It also ranks second in the world by annual ridership after the Beijing Subway, with 3.068 billion rides delivered in 2015.[1] The daily ridership record was set at 11.299 million on April 1, 2016,[2] while over 10 million people use the system on an average workday.[10]

On 16 October 2013, with the extension of Line 11 into Kunshan, Jiangsu province, Shanghai Metro became the first rapid transit system in China to provide cross-provincial service. Further plans to connect the Shanghai Metro with the metro systems of Suzhou and Wuxi are under active review.[11] The first line connecting Shanghai Metro Line 11 and Suzhou Metro Line 3 is projected to be completed in 2020.[12] Ambitious expansion plans call for 25 Lines with over 1,000 km of length by 2025.[13] By then, every location in the central area of Shanghai will be within 600 meters of a subway station.[14]


Evolution of the Shanghai Metro


For the Maglev Train and the China Railway-operated service formerly denoted as Line 22, see Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan Railway.

There are currently 14 lines in operation, with Lines and services are denoted numerically as well as by characteristic colors, which are used as a visual aid for better distinction on station signage and on the exterior of trains, in the form of a colored block or belt.

Unlike in other systems such as the New York City Subway, most tracks in the Shanghai Metro system are served by a single service; thus "Line X" usually refers both to the physical line and its service. The only exception is the segment shared by Lines 3 and 4, between Hongqiao Road Station and Baoshan Road Station, where both services use the same tracks and platforms.

System map of the Shanghai Metro as of April 26, 2016, including the Shanghai Maglev Train
Line Termini
Service patterns Opened Newest
Shanghai Metro
 1  Fujin Road
Fujin RoadXinzhuang
Partial: Shanghai Railway StationXinzhuang[47]
1993[15][16] 2007[27] 36.4 28
 2  East Xujing
Pudong International Airport
Rush Hour: East XujingTangzhen[48]

Mainline: East XujingGuanglan Road
Partial: Songhong RoadGuanglan Road
Suburban segment: Guanglan RoadPudong International Airport[49]

1999 2010 63.8 30
 3  North Jiangyang Road
Shanghai South Railway Station
North Jiangyang RoadShanghai South Railway Station
Partial: South Changjiang RoadShanghai South Railway Station[50]
2000 2006 40.3 29
Loop line
Yishan Road
Yishan Road
Loop line; certain trains terminate at Yishan Road.[51] 2005 2007 33.7 26
 5  Xinzhuang
Minhang Development Zone
XinzhuangMinhang Development Zone[52] 2003 17.2 11
 6  Gangcheng Road
Oriental Sports Center
Gangcheng RoadOriental Sports Center
Partial: Jufeng RoadGaoqing Road[53]
2007 2011 32.3 28
 7  Meilan Lake
Huamu Road
Meilan LakeHuamu Road
Partial: Qihua RoadHuamu Road[54]
2009 2014 44.2 33
 8  Shiguang Road
Shendu Highway
Shiguang RoadShendu Highway

Partial: Middle Yanji RoadOriental Sports Center[55]

2007 2011 37.4 30
 9  Songjiang South Railway Station
Middle Yanggao Road
Songjiang South Railway StationMiddle Yanggao Road
Partial: SheshanMiddle Yanggao Road[56]
2007 2012 52.1 26
 10  Xinjiangwancheng
Hongqiao Railway Station (Minhang) XinjiangwanchengHongqiao Railway Station
XinjiangwanchengHangzhong Road[57]
2010 2010 35.4 31
Hangzhong Road (Minhang)
 11  North Jiading (Jiading) Disney Resort
North JiadingDisney Resort[58]
2009 2016 82.4 38
Huaqiao (Kunshan, Jiangsu)
 12  Qixin Road
Jinhai Road
Qixin RoadJinhai Road
Partial: Hongmei RoadJufeng Road[59]
2013 2015 40.4 32
 13  Shibo Avenue
Jinyun Road
Shibo AvenueJinyun Road[60] 2012 2015 22.0 19
 16  Longyang Road
Dishui Lake
Longyang RoadDishui Lake, stopping all stations.

Longyang RoadDishui Lake, an express route stopping at Longyang Road, Luoshan Road, Xinchang, Huinan and Dishui Lake.[61]

2013 2014 59 13
Total 588
[3][note 1]
[note 2]


Unlike in other systems such as the New York City Subway, most tracks in the Shanghai Metro system are served by a single service; thus "Line X" usually refers both to the physical line and its service. The only exception is the segment shared by Lines 3 and 4, between Hongqiao Road Station and Baoshan Road Station, where both services use the same tracks and platforms.

Partial service patterns

Partial service patterns exist on Lines 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12.[47][49][50][53][54][55][56][58][59] Partial services serve only a (usually busier) sub-segment of the entire physical line. In addition, Line 2 has a piecewise service pattern whereby the suburban segment between Guanglan Road Station and Pudong International Airport Station is served by a 4-car fleet separately. Passengers traveling across Guanglan Road on Line 2 must change trains across the platform at Guanglan Road.

Line 11, one of the two branch lines of the metro system, operates a different partial service pattern. Trains travelling to and from the branch line terminate at Huaqiao Station and Sanlin respectively. Hence, a passenger who wants to travel from the terminus of the branch to the eastern terminus of the line, at Disney Resort must change trains.[58]

Line 16

Line 16, unlike the rest of the system, is built with an express track and operates a rush-hour express service. The service was canceled in January 30, 2014, due to lack of available trains, but resumed on March 21, 2016.[62][63][64]


All trains in the Shanghai Metro display destinations in Simplified Chinese and English, and make announcements in Standard Mandarin, English, and (on line 16 only) Shanghainese in order to indicate next stations, directions, and partial/full-length service patterns.[65]


Transfer stations

There are two types of transfer stations: physical transfer stations and transit-card only ones. In a physical transfer station, passengers can transfer between subway lines without exiting a fare zone. In a transit-card only transfer station, however, passengers have to exit and re-enter fare zones as they transfer from one subway line to another. In order to receive a discounted fare, passengers must use a Shanghai public transport card (SPTC) instead of Single-Ride tickets.

Transit-card only transfer stations

A transit-card only transfer station is a station where two lines meet, but unlike a physical interchange, there is no direct pathway between them within the paid fare area. Passengers wishing to interchange must exit the paid fare area for the first line, walk a short distance on the street, and re-enter the paid fare area for the second line. Since June 1, 2008, passengers interchanging using a Shanghai public transport card have their trip regarded as one journey and the distance will be accumulated for fare calculation. Passengers must exit a station and re-enter another within 30 minutes using the same Shanghai public transport card. Those using single-ride tickets cannot use virtual transfers and must purchase a new ticket.

In some cases virtual interchanges in place during a period of construction were superseded by physical interchanges at the completion of the construction. For example, Hongkou Football Stadium Station was previously a virtual interchange between Line 3 and Line 8. Another previously virtual interchange was South Shaanxi Road Station between Line 1 and Line 10; after the opening of an extension of line 12 to the station in December 2015 transfers among all three lines became a physical interchange.

The current virtual interchanges are:

Transport hubs

The busiest station in Shanghai Metro system is People's Square station (Lines 1, 2 and 8). As the interchange station for three lines, it is extremely crowded during peak hours. It remains busy during the rest of the day as it is located near major shopping and tourist destinations such as East Nanjing Road, a pedestrian street, as well as the Shanghai Museum, People's Park, the Shanghai Grand Theatre and Yan'an Park on People's Square. It has the second largest number of exits (totalling 17) in the stations of the metro system.

Xujiahui (Lines 1, 9 and 11) is located in the major Xujiahui commercial center of Shanghai. Six large shopping malls and eight large office towers are each within a three-minute walk of one of the station's exits, numbering a total of 18 since the addition of the four in the Line 9 part of the station that opened in December 2009. This is the largest number of exits of all the stations on the system. This station is also widely used as a pedestrian tunnel across the wide roads.

Lujiazui (Line 2) is the major station in Pudong area. It is situated in the heart of Lujiazui financial district, the financial center of Shanghai. The city's iconic landmarks, the Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Jin Mao Tower and Shanghai World Financial Centre are all within walking distance of the station. In contrast to Xujiahui and People's Square, Lujiazui is not particularly busy during off-peak hours or on weekends as it is located in financial district of Shanghai.

Shanghai Railway Station (Lines 1, 3 and 4) is a major transportation hub in Shanghai, containing the railway station, two subway lines and the stop for many city bus lines as well as interprovincial buses. These bus lines will soon be housed in a brand-new bus station. The line 1 platform is in the South square while platforms for line 3/4 are in the North square. These two platforms are technically separate stations, so interchange is only possible between lines 3/4. A transfer to the line 1 platform requires a SPTC or a new ticket.

Shanghai South Railway Station (Lines 1 and 3) is a transport station for line 1 and line 3; and the maintenance base of line 1 is also located at Shanghai South Railway Station.

Zhongshan Park Station (Lines 2, 3 and 4) is a heavily trafficked station due to the large shopping malls and hotel immediately above it.

Century Avenue Station (Lines 2, 4, 6 and 9) is the largest interchange station in the Shanghai Metro system.

Pudong International Airport (Line 2) is the eastern terminus of Line 2. It serves the airport of the same name in Shanghai. The station also provides a transfer with the Shanghai Maglev Train to Longyang Road.

Hongqiao Railway Station (Line 2 and Line 10), Hongqiao Airport Terminal 1 and Hongqiao Airport Terminal 2 are metro stations located in the Hongqiao Comprehensive Transportation Hub, composed of the Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station. Both Hongqiao Airport stations are directly linked with the airport, offering many domestic and limited international flights, and the Hongqiao Railway metro station is directly linked with the train station. The airport and railway stations themselves offer a zero-distance transfer.

Ticket system

Jiaotong University Station
Dabaishu Station

Like many other metro systems in the world, Shanghai Metro uses a distance-based fare system.The system uses a "one-ticket network", which means that interchanging is possible between all interchange stations, given that the transfer staying within the Shanghai Metro system, without the purchase of another ticket where available. The Shanghai Public Transport Card, which allows access to most public transport in Shanghai under one card, is another form of payment.


Single Journey ticket

Single-Journey tickets can be purchased from ticket vending machines, and at some stations, at a ticket window. Single-ride tickets are embedded with RFID contactless chips. When entering the system riders tap the ticket against a scanner above the turnstile, and on exit they insert the ticket into a slot where it is stored and recycled.

Shanghai Public Transportation Card

In addition to a Single-Ride ticket, fare can be paid using a Shanghai public transport card. This RFID-embedded card can be purchased at selected banks, convenience stores and metro stations with a 20-yuan deposit. This card can be loaded at ticket booths, Service Centers at the metro stations as well as many small convenience stores and banks throughout the city. The Shanghai Public Transportation Card can also be used to pay for other forms of transportation, such as taxi or bus.

This transit card is similar to the Oyster card of the London Underground (and other London transport systems), Chicago card of the CTA and the Octopus card of Hong Kong's MTR.

One-day pass

A one-day pass was introduced for the Expo 2010 held in Shanghai. The fare for the calendar day was set at 18 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.[66]

Three-day pass

A three-day pass is available for Shanghai Metro. The fare for three days was set at 45 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.


Inside a Line 2 train.


Standard gauge is used throughout the network, allowing new train equipment to be transported over the Chinese rail network which uses the same gauge.


Almost all stations, except elevated sections and sections of Line 2, have platform screen doors with sliding acrylic glass at the platform edge. The train stops with its doors lined-up with the sliding doors on the platform edge and open when the train doors open, and are closed at other times. These screens are also being retrofitted on existing lines, starting with Line 1 whose core stations had doors by the end of 2006. On Line 2 and elevated sections (Line 3 and partly 4), the platform has sliding safety doors that reach only halfway up from the ground called Automatic platform gates. However, many of the sliding safety doors on the shared section of Line 3/4 only operate during peak times.

Rolling stock

Train sets used by the Metro system:

Most lines currently use 6 car sets, with the exceptions being:


Shanghai Metro lines 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 are equipped with CBTC systems capable of headways as low as 90 seconds.[67]

Power supply

In contrast to many other metro systems in the world, the Shanghai Metro uses overhead wires for the power supply, except for Line 16 which uses third rail.

On Line 2, Siemens Transportation Systems equipped the line with an overhead contact line (cantilever material: galvanized steel) and 7 DC traction power supply substations.[68]

Passenger information systems

Plasma screens on the platforms show passengers when the next two trains are coming, along with advertisements and public service announcements. The subway cars contain LCD screens showing advertisements and on some lines, the next stop, while above-ground trains have LED screens showing the next stop. The LED screens are being phased in on Line 1 and are also included in lines 7 and 9, two underground lines. There are recorded messages stating the next stop in Mandarin, English and (on line 16 only) Shanghainese,[65][69] but the messages stating nearby attractions or shops for a given station (a form of paid advertising) are in Mandarin only. The metro operating company is resistant to expanding use of Shanghainese for announcing stops, on the basis that, on most lines, the majority of passengers can understand either Mandarin or English.[70]

Station signs are in Chinese and English. The Metro authority is testing a new systematic numbering system for stations on Line 10.[71]

Future expansion

The Shanghai Metro system is one of the fastest growing metro systems in the world. Four lines were under construction at the end of 2014, and nine other lines or sections began construction in 2015. By the end of 2020, the network will comprise 18 lines spanning 800 kilometres (497 mi).[72] In addition, there are long-term plans to connect the Shanghai Metro with the Suzhou Rail Transit and Wuxi Metro in neighbouring Jiangsu province.[11]

Planned opening date Route Name Terminals Length (km) Stations Status Notes
  Line 5
South ExtensionDongchuan Road South Nanqiao Xincheng 17 8 Under construction [72]
  Line 8
3rd PhaseShendu Highway South Pujin Road 6.644 6 Under construction [72]
  Line 9
3rd Phase Eastern Section Middle Yanggao Road Caolu Railway Station 13.8 9 Under construction [72]
  Line 17
Hongqiao Railway StationShanghai Oriental Land 35.3 13 Under construction [72]
  Line 10
2nd Phase Xinjiangwancheng Jilong Road 10 6 Under construction [72]
  Line 13
3rd PhaseShibo Avenue Zhangjiang Road 25.5 12 Under construction [72]
  Line 14
Fengbang Jinhui Road 38.5 31 Under construction [72]
  Line 15
Jinqiu Road Zizhu Science-Based Industry Park 42.3 30 Under construction [72]
  Line 18
Changbei Road Hangtou Station 36.8 26 Under construction [72]
2025 and beyond
  Line 1
West extension Xinzhuang Humin Rd 1 1 Planned [73]


  Line 13
West extension Jinyun Rd East Xujing 10 5 Planned
  Line 19
Meilong Yanghang 40 30+ Planned
  Line 20
Shanghai West Railway Station Gongqing Forest Park 20 10+ Planned
  Line 21
Shanghai Int'l Tourism and Resorts Zone Gaohang 28 10+ Planned
  Line 23
Xujiahui Minhang Development Zone 29 20+ Planned
Jiamin Express Line Xinzhuang Jiading Xincheng 42 10+ Planned
Chongming Express Line Rongqiao Road Chongming Island 47 8 Planned
Airport Express Line Shanghai East Railway Station Hongqiao Railway Station 68 8 Planned


See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 This figure excludes Maglev line and Line 22, both often included in Shanghai Metro maps but not considered part of the system.
  2. 1 2 3 337 is the number of stations if interchanges on different lines are counted separately, with the exception of the 9 stations shared by Lines 3 and 4 on the same track. The stations on the Maglev line and Line 22 are not included.


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