Outline of evolution

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to evolution:

A diagram showing the relationships betweens various groups of organisms

Evolution – change in heritable traits of biological organisms over generations due to natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift. Also known as descent with modification. Over time these evolutionary processes lead to formation of new species (speciation), changes within lineages (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction). "Evolution" is also another name for evolutionary biology, the subfield of biology concerned with studying evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth.

Fundamentals about evolution


Basic principles



  • By period or event
  • By field

Evolutionary theory and modelling

See also Basic principles (above)

Population genetics

Evolutionary phenomena


Taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny


Basic concepts of phylogenetics

Inference methods

Current topics

Group Traits

Group Types

Evolution of biodiversity

Origin and evolutionary history of life

Evolution of organisms

Evolution of tetrapods

Evolution of other animals

Evolution of plants

Evolution of other taxa

Evolution of cells, organs, and systems

Evolution of molecules and genes

Evolution of behaviour

Evolution of other processes

Applications in other disciplines

Evolutionary issues

Controversy about evolution

Religious and philosophical views of evolution

Influence of evolutionary theory

Publications and organizations concerning evolution




Evolution scholars and researchers

Prominent evolutionary biologists

See also


  1. 1 2 "What is biodiversity?". United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
  2. Gaston, Kevin J. (11 May 2000). "Global patterns in biodiversity". Nature. 405 (6783): 220–227. doi:10.1038/35012228. PMID 10821282.
  3. Field, Richard; Hawkins, Bradford A.; Cornell, Howard V.; Currie, David J.; Diniz-Filho, J. Alexandre F.; Guégan, Jean-François; Kaufman, Dawn M.; Kerr, Jeremy T.; Mittelbach, Gary G.; Oberdorff, Thierry; O’Brien, Eileen M.; Turner, John R. G. (1 January 2009). "Spatial species-richness gradients across scales: a meta-analysis". Journal of Biogeography. 36 (1): 132–147. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01963.x.
  4. K. Rohde: Latitudinal gradients in species diversity and their causes. I. A review of the hypotheses explaining the gradients. Biologisches Zentralblatt 97, 393-403, 1978a.
  5. K. Rohde: Latitudinal gradients in species diversity and their causes. II. Marine parasitological evidence for a time hypothesis. Biologisches Zentralblatt 97, 405-418, 1978b.
  6. Appenzeller, T. 1999. "Test tube evolution catches time in a bottle." Science. 284: 2108-2110
  7. Wright, Sewall (1932) The Roles of Mutation, Inbreeding, Crossbreeding, and Selection in Evolution. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics 1: 356-366
  8. Wright, Sewall (1988) Surfaces of Selective Value Revisited. The American Naturalist 131(1):115-123
  9. Lee, Carol E. & Gelebiuk, Gregory W. (2008) Evolutionary origins of invasive populations. "Evolutionary Applications" 1: 427-448.
General information
Experiments concerning the process of biological evolution
Online lectures
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