Universal Darwinism

Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory,[1] or Darwinian metaphysics[2][3][4]) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth. Universal Darwinism aims to formulate a generalized version of the mechanisms of variation, selection and heredity proposed by Charles Darwin, so that they can apply to explain evolution in a wide variety of other domains, including psychology, economics, culture, medicine, computer science and physics.

Basic mechanisms

At the most fundamental level, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution states that organisms evolve and adapt to their environment by an iterative process. This process can be conceived as an evolutionary algorithm that searches the space of possible forms (the fitness landscape) for the ones that are best adapted. The process has three components:

After those fit variants are retained, they can again undergo variation, either directly or in their offspring, starting a new round of the iteration. The overall mechanism is similar to the problem-solving procedures of trial-and-error or generate-and-test: evolution can be seen as searching for the best solution for the problem of how to survive and reproduce by generating new trials, testing how well they perform, eliminating the failures, and retaining the successes.

The generalization made in "universal" Darwinism is to replace "organism" by any recognizable pattern, phenomenon, or system. The first requirement is that the pattern can "survive" (maintain, be retained) long enough or "reproduce" (replicate, be copied) sufficiently frequently so as not to disappear immediately. This is the heredity component: the information in the pattern must be retained or passed on. The second requirement is that during survival and reproduction variation (small changes in the pattern) can occur. The final requirement is that there is a selective "preference" so that certain variants tend to survive or reproduce "better" than others. If these conditions are met, then, by the logic of natural selection, the pattern will evolve towards more adapted forms.

Examples of patterns that have been postulated to undergo variation and selection, and thus adaptation, are genes, ideas (memes), theories, technologies, neurons and their connections, words, computer programs, firms, antibodies, institutions, law and judicial systems, quantum states and even whole universes.[5]

History and development

Conceptually, "evolutionary theorizing about cultural, social, and economic phenomena" preceded Darwin,[6] but was still lacking the concept of natural selection. Darwin himself, together with subsequent 19th century thinkers such as Herbert Spencer, Thorstein Veblen, James Mark Baldwin and William James, was quick to apply the idea of selection to other domains, such as language, psychology, society, and culture.[7] However, this evolutionary tradition was largely banned from the social sciences in the beginning of the 20th century, in part because of the bad reputation of social Darwinism, an attempt to use Darwinism to justify social inequality.

Starting in the 1950s, Donald T. Campbell was one of the first and most influential authors to revive the tradition, and to formulate a generalized Darwinian algorithm directly applicable to phenomena outside of biology.[8] In this, he was inspired by William Ross Ashby's view of self-organization and intelligence as fundamental processes of selection.[9] His aim was to explain the development of science and other forms of knowledge by focusing on the variation and selection of ideas and theories, thus laying the basis for the domain of evolutionary epistemology. In the 1990s, Campbell's formulation of the mechanism of "blind-variation-and-selective-retention" (BVSR) was further developed and extended to other domains under the labels of "universal selection theory"[10] or "universal selectionism"[11] by his disciples Gary Cziko,[12][13] Mark Bickhard,[14] and Francis Heylighen.[15][16]

Richard Dawkins may have first coined the term "universal Darwinism" in 1983 to describe his conjecture that any possible life forms existing outside the solar system would evolve by natural selection just as they do on Earth.[17] This conjecture was also presented in 1983 in a paper entitled the “The Darwinian Dynamic” that dealt with the evolution of order in living systems and certain nonliving physical systems.[18] It was suggested “that ‘life’, wherever it might exist in the universe, evolves according to the same dynamical law” termed the Darwinian dynamic. Henry Plotkin in his 1997 book[19] on Darwin machines makes the link between universal Darwinism and Campbell's evolutionary epistemology. Susan Blackmore, in her 1999 book The Meme Machine, devotes a chapter titled 'Universal Darwinism' to a discussion of the applicability of the Darwinian process to a wide range of scientific subject matters.

The philosopher of mind Daniel Dennett, in his 1995 book Darwin's Dangerous Idea, developed the idea of a Darwinian process, involving variation, selection and retention, as a generic algorithm that is substrate-neutral and could be applied to many fields of knowledge outside of biology. He described the idea of natural selection as a "universal acid" that cannot be contained in any vessel, as it seeps through the walls and spreads ever further, touching and transforming ever more domains. He notes in particular the field of memetics in the social sciences.[20][13]

In agreement with Dennett's prediction, over the past decades the Darwinian perspective has spread ever more widely, in particular across the social sciences as the foundation for numerous schools of study including memetics, evolutionary economics, evolutionary psychology, evolutionary anthropology, neural Darwinism, and evolutionary linguistics.[21] Researchers have postulated Darwinian processes as operating at the foundations of physics, cosmology and chemistry via the theories of quantum Darwinism,[22] observation selection effects and cosmological natural selection.[23][24] Similar mechanisms are extensively applied in computer science in the domains of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation, which develop solutions to complex problems via a process of variation and selection.

One of the most all-encompassing accounts of Universal Darwinism is provided by author D. B. Kelley in his 2013 book The Origin of Everything via Universal Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Systems in Contention for Existence. While Darwin maintained that natural selection, at its true foundations, is nothing more than survival of the fittest,[25] Kelley expounds upon the notion that it ultimately involves the survival of the fittest systems, or phenomena. He also generalizes, or further reduces, survival of the fittest to what he calls "preservation of the stable." He argues that all stable entities are products of this unremitting principle, as selection is the driving evolutionary mechanism behind not only species but all natural phenomena. Just as evolution is continuous, selection too is continuous, forever acting upon all of the many systems to have unfolded chronologically throughout history. Kelley thus applies selection to everything from quantum physics to chemistry, biology, geology and astronomy, addressing many of the most significant contributions to Universal Darwinism by scientists in each of these fields and more.

Examples of universal Darwinist theories

The following approaches can all be seen as exemplifying a generalization of Darwinian ideas outside of their original domain of biology. These "Darwinian extensions" can be grouped in two categories, depending on whether they discuss implications of biological (genetic) evolution in other disciplines (e.g. medicine or psychology), or discuss processes of variation and selection of entities other than genes (e.g. computer programs, firms or ideas). However, there is no strict separation possible, since most of these approaches (e.g. in sociology, psychology and linguistics) consider both genetic and non-genetic (e.g. cultural) aspects of evolution, as well as the interactions between them (see e.g. gene-culture coevolution).

Gene-based Darwinian extensions

Other Darwinian extensions



  1. Hodgson, G. M. (2005). "Generalizing Darwinism to social evolution: Some early attempts". Journal of economic issues: 899–914. ISSN 0021-3624.
  2. von Sydow, M. (2012). From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms. A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism. Universitätsverlag Göttingen.
  3. von Sydow, M. (2013). Darwinian Metaphysics (pp. 1306-1314). In A. Runehov & L. Oviedo (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions. Heidelberg, New York: Springer Science [doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8265-8].
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  5. Campbell, John (2009). Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism. AIP Conf. Proc. 1193, 40, doi:10.1063/1.3275642. 40-47.
  6. Nelson, Richard R. (January 2007). "Universal Darwinism and evolutionary social science". Biology and Philosophy. Springer Netherlands. 22 (1): 73–94. doi:10.1007/s10539-005-9005-7. ISSN 1572-8404. Retrieved 2010-01-02. [...] evolutionary theorizing about cultural, social, and economic phenomena has a long tradition, going back well before Darwin.
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  11. Hodgson, G. M. (2005). Generalizing Darwinism to social evolution: Some early attempts. Journal of economic issues, 899–914.
  12. Gary Cziko (1995) Without Miracles: Universal Selection Theory and the Second Darwinian Revolution (MIT Press)
  13. 1 2 Stoelhorst, J. W. (n.d.). Universal Darwinism from the bottom up: An evolutionary view of socio-economic behavior and organization. Wolfram Elsner and Hardy Hanappi, Advances in Evolutionary Institutional Economics: Evolutionary Modules, Non-Knowledge, and Strategy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers.
  14. Bickhard, M. H., & Campbell, D. T. (2003). Variations in variation and selection: The ubiquity of the variation-and-selective-retention ratchet in emergent organizational complexity Foundations of Science, 8(3), 215–282.
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  20. Dennett, Daniel C. (2005), Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Touchstone Press, New York. pp. 352360.
  21. Oudeyer, P.-Y. and Kaplan, F. (2007) Language Evolution as a Darwinian Process: Computational Studies. Cognitive Processing, 8(1):2135
  22. Blume-Kohou, Robin and Zurek, Wojciech. (2006). Quantum Darwinism: Entanglement, branches, and the emergent classicality of redundantly stored quantum information, Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 73, 062310 (2006)
  23. Smolin, Lee (1997). The Life of the Cosmos. Oxford University Press
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