List of objects at Lagrangian points
This is a list of known objects which occupy, have occupied, or are planned to occupy any of the five Lagrangian points of two-body systems in space.
L1 is the Lagrangian point located approximately 1.5 million km from Earth towards the Sun.
- International Cometary Explorer, formerly the International Sun–Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3), diverted out of L1 in 1983 for a comet rendezvous mission. Currently in heliocentric orbit.
- NASA's Genesis probe collected solar wind samples at L1 from December 3, 2001 to April 1, 2004, when it returned the sample capsule to Earth. It returned briefly in late 2004 before being pushed into heliocentric orbit in early 2005.
- WIND (spacecraft) (At L1 since 2004)
- The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
- The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)
- The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), designed to monitor global warming
- LISA Pathfinder
L2 is the Lagrangian point located approximately 1.5 million km from Earth in the direction opposite the Sun.
- NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observed the cosmic microwave background from 2001 until 2010. It was moved to a heliocentric orbit to avoid posing a hazard to future missions.
- CNSA's Chang'e 2 from August 2011 to April 2012. Chang'e 2 was then placed onto a heliocentric orbit that took it past the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis.
- The ESA Herschel Space Observatory exhausted its supply of liquid helium and was moved from the Lagrangian point in June 2013.
- At the end of its mission ESA's Planck spacecraft was put into a heliocentric orbit and passivated to prevent it from endangering any future missions.
- The ESA Gaia probe
- The joint NASA, ESA and CSA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)
- The ESA PLATO mission, which will find and characterize rocky exoplanets.
- The NASA Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope, which would replace the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly the JWST.
- The ESA Eddington mission
- The NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder mission (may be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit instead)
L3 is the Sun–Earth Lagrangian point located on the side of the Sun opposite Earth, slightly outside the Earth's orbit.
- There are no known objects in this orbital location.
L4 is the Sun–Earth Lagrangian point located close to the Earth's orbit 60° ahead of Earth.
- Asteroid 2010 TK7 is the first discovered "tadpole" orbit companion to Earth, orbiting L4 with a mean distance of about one astronomical unit.
- STEREO A (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory – Ahead) made its closest pass to L4 in September 2009, on its orbit around the Sun, slightly faster than Earth.
- Dust clouds
L5 is the Sun–Earth Lagrangian point located close to the Earth's orbit 60° behind Earth.
- Asteroid 2010 SO16, in a horseshoe companion orbit with Earth, is currently proximal to L5 but at a high inclination.
- STEREO B (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory – Behind) makes its closest pass to L5 in October 2009, on its orbit around the Sun, slightly slower than Earth.
- The Spitzer Space Telescope is in an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit drifting away c. 0.1 AU per year. In c. 2013–15 it will pass L5 in its orbit.
- Dust clouds
Earth–Moon Lagrangian points
- possible Kordylewski clouds
- future location of TDRS-style communication satellites to support L2 satellite
- Hiten was the first spacecraft to demonstrate a low energy trajectory, passing by L4 and L5 to achieve lunar orbit at a very low fuel expense, compared to usual orbital techniques. Hiten did not find any conclusive increase in dust density at Lagrange points.
- Exploration Gateway Platform
- In his book "The High Frontier" Dr. Gerard O'Neill proposed the establishment of gigantic Space Islands in L5. The inhabitants of the L5 Society should convert Lunar material to huge solar power satellites. Many works of fiction, most notably the Gundam series, involve colonies at these locations.
Sun–Mars Lagrangian points
Asteroids in the L4 and L5 Sun–Mars Lagrangian points are sometimes called Mars trojans, with a lower-case t, as "Trojan asteroid" was originally defined as a term for Lagrangian asteroids of Jupiter. They may also be called Mars Lagrangian asteroids.
- 5261 Eureka
- 1998 VF31
- (311999) 2007 NS2
- (385250) 2001 DH47, 2001 FG24, 2001 FR127 (not confirmed as true Lagrangian asteroids)
Sun–Jupiter Lagrangian points
- Polydeuces, follows a "tadpole" orbit around L5
Sun–Uranus Lagrangian points
Sun–Neptune Lagrangian points
Minor planets in the L4 and L5 Sun–Neptune Lagrangian points are called Neptune trojans, with a lower-case t, as "Trojan asteroid" was originally defined as a term for Lagrangian asteroids of Jupiter.
- Lagrangian point (especially section Lagrangian spacecraft and missions)
- Trojan points
- Trojan asteroid
- Trojan moon
- Trojan planet
- "China's Moon orbiter Chang'e-2 travels 1.5 km into outer space". The Economic Times. 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- NASA - Join STEREO and Explore Gravitational "Parking Lots" That May Hold Secret of Moon's Origin
- John Baez' Lagrange Points page
- The first known Uranian Trojan and the frequency of temporary giant-planet co-orbitals: Mike Alexandersen, Brett Gladman, Sarah Greenstreet, J.J. Kavelaars, Jean-Marc Petit