Dennis O'Neil

For other people named Dennis O'Neil, see Dennis O'Neil (disambiguation).
Dennis O'Neil

O'Neil looking to the camera

O'Neil at the 2009 Brooklyn Book Festival.
Born Dennis J. O'Neil[1]
(1939-05-03) May 3, 1939
St. Louis, Missouri
Nationality American
Area(s) Writer, Editor
Pseudonym(s) Sergius O'Shaughnessy[2]
Jim Dennis[3]
Notable works
Batman (comic book), Green Lantern/Green Arrow, The Question, Iron Man, The Amazing Spider-Man, Daredevil
Awards Shazam Award, 1970, 1971

Dennis J. "Denny" O'Neil (born May 3, 1939[4] in St. Louis, Missouri) is an American comic book writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics from the 1960s through the 1990s, and Group Editor for the Batman family of titles until his retirement.

His best-known works include Green Lantern/Green Arrow and Batman with Neal Adams, The Shadow with Michael Kaluta and The Question with Denys Cowan, all of which were hailed for their sophisticated stories that expanded the artistic potential of the mainstream portion of the medium. As an editor, he is principally known for editing the various Batman titles. As of 2013, he sits on the board of directors of the charity The Hero Initiative and serves on its Disbursement Committee.[5]


Early life

O'Neil was born into a Catholic household in St. Louis, Missouri. On Sunday afternoons he would accompany his father or his grandfather to the store for some light groceries and an occasional comic book.[2] O'Neil graduated from St. Louis University around the turn of the 1960s with a degree centered on English literature, creative writing, and philosophy. From there he joined the U.S. Navy just in time to participate in the blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis.[2]

After leaving the Navy, O'Neil moved on to a job with a newspaper in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. O'Neil wrote bi-weekly columns for the youth page, and during the slow summer months he filled the space with a series on the revival of the comics industry.[6] This attracted the attention of Roy Thomas, who would eventually himself become one of the great names in the history of the medium.[2]


Marvel Comics

When Roy Thomas left DC Comics to work for Stan Lee at Marvel Comics he suggested that O'Neil take the Marvel writer's test, which involved adding dialogue to a wordless four-page excerpt of a Fantastic Four comic; and O'Neil's entry impressed Lee enough to offer him a job.[2] O'Neil had never considered writing for comics before, and later said he'd done the test "kind of as a joke. I had a couple of hours on a Tuesday afternoon, so instead of doing crossword puzzles, I did the writer's test."[6]

When Marvel's expansion made it impossible for Lee to continue writing the company's entire line of books, Lee passed as much on to Roy Thomas as he could, but still needed writers, so O'Neil took the reins for a short-term run of Doctor Strange stories in Strange Tales, penning six issues. He also wrote dialog for such titles as Rawhide Kid and Millie the Model, as well as scripting the final 13 pages of Daredevil #18 over a plot by Lee, when Lee went on vacation.

O'Neil and artist Neal Adams revived the Professor X character in X-Men #65[7] in one of the creative team's earliest collaborations.[8]

Charlton Comics

The available jobs writing for Marvel petered out fairly quickly, and O'Neil took a job with Charlton Comics under the pseudonym of Sergius O’Shaugnessy.[2] There he received regular work for a year and a half from Charlton's editor Dick Giordano.[2]

DC Comics

In 1968 Dick Giordano was offered an editorial position at DC Comics and took a number of Charlton freelancers with him, including O'Neil. Charlton talent arrived at DC from a different culture of comics. At DC, the office seemed like a snapshot from 1950, with a crowd of short-haired men in white shirts and ties. The jeans-wearing, hippy trended Charlton crowd visibly represented a different generation.

Speedy's habit revealed, artist Dick Dillin

O'Neil's first assignments involved two strategies for bolstering DC's sales. One approach centered on the creation of new characters, and O'Neil scripted several issues of Beware the Creeper, a series starring a new hero, The Creeper, created by artist Steve Ditko. From there, DC moved O'Neil to Wonder Woman and Justice League of America. With artist Mike Sekowsky, he took away Wonder Woman's powers,[9] exiled her from the Amazon community, and set her off, uncostumed, into international intrigues with her blind mentor, I Ching. These changes did not sit well with Wonder Woman's older fans, particularly feminists, and O'Neil acknowledged that de-powering DC's most well-known superheroine had unintentionally alienated readers.[10] In Justice League, he had more success, introducing into that title the first socially and politically themed stories, setting the stage for later work on Green Lantern/Green Arrow.[2] He and artist Dick Dillin made several changes to the membership of the JLA by removing founding members the Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman.[11]

Following the lead set by Bob Haney and Neal Adams in a Brave and the Bold story that visually redefined Green Arrow into the version that appeared in comics between 1969 and 1986, O'Neil stripped him of his wealth and playboy status, making him an urban hero. This redefinition would culminate in the character that appeared in Green Lantern/Green Arrow, with many stories also drawn by Adams, a socially conscious, left-wing creation that effectively took over Green Lantern's book to use him as a foil and straw man in sounding out the political concepts that would define that work.[2][12] It was during this period that the most famous Green Arrow story appeared, in Green Lantern #85–86, when it was revealed that Green Arrow's ward Speedy was addicted to heroin.[13][14] As a result of his work on Green Lantern and Green Arrow, O'Neil recounted, "I went from total obscurity to seeing my name featured in The New York Times and being invited to do talk shows. It's by no means an unmixed blessing. That messed up my head pretty thoroughly for a couple of years. ... Deteriorating marriage, bad habits, deteriorating relationships with human beings – with anything that wasn't a typewriter, in fact. It was a bad few years there."[6]

O'Neil's 1970s run on the Batman titles, under the direction of editor Julius Schwartz,[15] is perhaps his best-known endeavor, getting back to the character's darker roots after a period dominated by the campiness of the 1960s TV series.[16] Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was actually an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight."[17] O'Neil and Adams' creation Ra's al Ghul was introduced in the story "Daughter of the Demon" in Batman #232 (June 1971)[18] O'Neil and artist Bob Brown also created Talia al Ghul.[19] During this period, O'Neil frequently teamed up with his regular collaborator Adams (with Giordano often assisting on inks) on a number of memorable issues of both Batman and Detective Comics. The creative team would revive Two-Face in Batman #234 (Aug. 1971)[20] and revitalize the Joker in "The Joker's Five-Way Revenge!" in Batman #251 (Sept. 1973), a landmark story bringing the character back to his roots as a homicidal maniac who murders people on a whim and delights in his mayhem.[21][22] O'Neil and Giordano created the Batman supporting character Leslie Thompkins in the story "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" appearing in Detective Comics #457 (March 1976).[23] O'Neil and artist Don Newton killed the original version of Batwoman in Detective Comics #485 (Aug.-Sept. 1979).[24] He wrote a short Christmas story, "Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive", for DC Special Series #21 (Spring 1980) which featured Frank Miller's first art on a Batman story.[25]

When Julius Schwartz became the editor of Superman with issue #233 (Jan. 1971), he had O'Neil and artist Curt Swan streamline the Superman mythos, starting with the elimination of Kryptonite.[26] In 1973, O'Neil wrote revivals of two characters for which DC had recently acquired the publishing rights. A new series featuring the original Captain Marvel was launched with a February cover date and featured art by the character's original artist C. C. Beck.[27] Later that same year, O'Neil and artist Michael Kaluta produced an "atmospheric interpretation" of the 1930s pulp hero in The Shadow series.[28] In 1975, O'Neil wrote a comic book adaptation of the 1930s hero The Avenger.[29] A revival of the Green Lantern title in 1976 was launched by O'Neil and artist Mike Grell.[30] Reuniting with Adams, O'Neil co-wrote the oversize Superman vs. Muhammad Ali (1978) which Adams has called a personal favorite of their collaborations.[31]

Return to Marvel Comics

Upon O'Neil's return to Marvel Comics in 1980, he took on the scripting chores for The Amazing Spider-Man, which he did for a year. O'Neil wrote two issues of The Amazing Spider-Man Annual which were both drawn by Frank Miller. The 1980 Annual featured a team-up with Doctor Strange[32] while the 1981 Annual showcased a meeting with the Punisher.[33] He and artist John Romita Jr. introduced Madame Web in The Amazing Spider-Man #210[34] and Hydro-Man in #212.[35] O'Neil was the regular scripter for Iron Man from 1982–1986, and Daredevil, from 1983–1985. During his run on Iron Man, O'Neil introduced Obadiah Stane, later the Iron Monger, plunged Tony Stark back into alcoholism, turned Jim Rhodes into Iron Man,[36] and created the Silver Centurion armor. O'Neil's run on Daredevil bridged the gap between Frank Miller's two runs on the title, usually with David Mazzucchelli as artist. He introduced Yuriko Oyama during his stint, who would later become the popular X-Men villain Lady Deathstrike. While working for Marvel, he helped write the original character concept for the Transformers, and is credited as the person who named Optimus Prime.

Return to DC Comics

After returning to DC Comics in 1986, he became the editor of the various Batman titles and served in that capacity until 2000.[37] In February 1987, O'Neil began writing The Question ongoing series which was primarily drawn by Denys Cowan.[38] The Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight series began in 1989 with the five-part "Shaman" storyline by O'Neil and artist Ed Hannigan.[39] Armageddon 2001 was a 1991 crossover event storyline. It ran through a self-titled, two issue limited series and most of the annuals DC published that year from May through October. Each participating annual explored potential possible futures for its main characters. The series was written by O'Neil and Archie Goodwin and drawn by Dan Jurgens.[40] The character Azrael was created by O'Neil and artist Joe Quesada in the Batman: Sword of Azrael miniseries in 1992.[41] That same year, O'Neil wrote the Batman: Birth of the Demon hardcover graphic novel.[42]

Other writing

O'Neil has written several novels, comics, short stories, reviews and teleplays, including the novelizations of the films Batman Begins[43] and The Dark Knight.[44] Under the pseudonym Jim Dennis with writer Jim Berry,[3] O'Neil scripted a series of novels about a kung fu character named Richard Dragon, and later adapted those novels to comic book form for DC.[3][45]

O'Neil writes a column for ComicMix.[46]


Joining Marvel's editorial staff in 1980, O'Neil edited Daredevil during Frank Miller's run as writer/artist.[2] He fired writer Roger McKenzie so that Miller could both write and pencil Daredevil, a decision which then-Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter says saved the series from cancellation.[47] O'Neil encouraged Miller to develop a believable fighting style for Daredevil, and according to Miller, this directly led to his incorporating martial arts into Daredevil and later Ronin.[48] In the early to mid-1980s, O'Neil edited such Marvel titles as Alpha Flight, Power Man and Iron Fist, G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero, and Moon Knight.[49]

According to Bob Budiansky, O'Neil came up with the name for the Transformer Optimus Prime, leader of the Autobots.[50]

In 1986, O'Neil moved over to DC as an editor, becoming group editor for the company's Batman titles. Speaking about his role in the death of character Jason Todd, O'Neil remarked:

It changed my mind about what I do for a living. Superman and Batman have been in continuous publication for over half a century, and it's never been true of any fictional construct before. These characters have a lot more weight than the hero of a popular sitcom that lasts maybe four years. They have become postindustrial folklore, and part of this job is to be the custodian of folk figures. Everybody on Earth knows Batman and Robin.[51]

O'Neil has said that he sees editing as a support role which should be invisible to the reader, and that if it were his choice his name would not appear in the credits when working as an editor, only when working as a writer.[6]


O'Neil spent several years in the late 1990s teaching a Writing for the Comics course at Manhattan's School of Visual Arts, sometimes sharing duties with fellow comic book writer John Ostrander.

Personal life

O'Neil is married to Marifran O'Neil.[52] He is the father of writer/director/producer Lawrence O'Neil, best known for the 1997 film Breast Men starring David Schwimmer.[53]


O'Neil's work has won him a great deal of recognition in the comics industry, including the Shazam Awards for Best Continuing Feature Green Lantern/Green Arrow,[54] Best Individual Story for "No Evil Shall Escape My Sight" in Green Lantern #76 (with Neal Adams),[54] for Best Writer (Dramatic Division) in 1970[54] for Green Lantern, Batman, Superman, and other titles, and Best Individual Story for "Snowbirds Don't Fly" in Green Lantern #85 (with Neal Adams) in 1971.[55]

O'Neil was given a Goethe Award in 1971 for "Favorite Pro Writer."[56] (He was a nominee for the same award in 1973.) He shared a 1971 Goethe Award with artist Neal Adams for "Favorite Comic-Book Story" for "“No Evil Shall Escape My Sight."

In 1985, DC Comics named O'Neil as one of the honorees in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.[57]

Appearances in media

In The Batman Adventures—the first DC Comics spinoff of Batman: The Animated Series—O'Neil appears as The Perfesser, one of a screwball trio of incompetent super-villains that also includes The Mastermind (a caricature of Mike Carlin) and Mr. Nice (a caricature of Archie Goodwin). The Perfesser is depicted as a tall, pipe-smoking genius who often gets lost in his own thoughts, and who regularly forgets to give his criminal friends crucial information in planning their heists. (For example, after carefully planning a hotel robbery, the trio arrives at the hotel's location to find a vacant lot. The Perfesser then remembers that the hotel was torn down several years ago.) He is also shown to perhaps be smarter than Batman, as he manages to figure out the Riddler's riddle in the third part of The Last Riddler Story, when Batman himself did not.


Charlton Comics

DC Comics

Marvel Comics

Graphic novels




Essays, reviews and interviews

Animated film


  1. Gruenwald, Mark. "Mark's Remarks," Iron Man #223 (October 1987).
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Talent Pool 19 – Denny O'Neil". Talent Pool. December 1999. Archived from the original on December 28, 2005.
  3. 1 2 3 Beatty, Scott. "Dragon, Richard", in Dougall, Alastair, The DC Comics Encyclopedia (New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2008), ISBN 0-7566-4119-5
  4. Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  5. "Hero Initiative Board Members Disbursement Committee". The Hero Initiative. 2013. Archived from the original on June 21, 2013.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Zimmerman, Dwight Jon (August 1986). "Denny O'Neil". Comics Interview (35). Fictioneer Books. pp. 22–37.
  7. Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 145. ISBN 978-0756641238. Writer Dennis O'Neil revealed that it was not Xavier who had perished but a shape-shifter called the Changeling...This epic tale provided an appropriately grand finale for the work of legendary artist Neal Adams."
  8. Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams collaborations at the Grand Comics Database
  9. McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1960s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. Carmine Infantino wanted to rejuvenate what had been perceived as a tired Wonder Woman, so he assigned writer Denny O'Neil and artist Mike Sekowsky to convert the Amazon Princess into a secret agent. Wonder Woman was made over into an Emma Peel type and what followed was arguably the most controversial period in the hero's history.
  10. Mangels, Andy (August 2006). "Catsuits and Karate: Diana Prince Leaves Wonder Woman Behind!". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (17): 35–43.
  11. McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 133 "In less than a year on the Justice League of America series, scribe Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin had made major changes to the team. Two issues after Wonder Woman left the JLA, the Martian Manhunter did the same."
  12. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 139 "Real-world politics have always gone hand-in-hand with comics and their creators' own personal perspectives. Yet this was never more creatively expressed than when writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams paired the liberal Green Arrow with the conservative Green Lantern."
  13. Greenberger, Robert (2008). "Green Arrow". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 142–143. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5.
  14. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 146 "It was taboo to depict drugs in comics, even in ways that openly condemned their use. However, writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams collaborated on an unforgettable two-part arc that brought the issue directly into Green Arrow's home, and demonstrated the power comics had to affect change and perception."
  15. Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. (2009). The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-7624-3663-8. Editor Julius Schwartz had decided to darken the character's world to further distance him from the camp environment created by the 1966 ABC show. Bringing in the talented O'Neil as well as the innovative Frank Robbins and showcasing the art of rising star Neal Adams...Schwartz pointed Batman in a new and darker direction, a path the character still continues on to this day.
  16. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 143 "Artist Neal Adams and writer Denny O'Neil rescued Batman from the cozy, campy cul-de-sac he had been consigned to in the 1960s and returned the Dark Knight to his roots as a haunted crime fighter."
  17. Daniels, Les (1995). "Revamping the Classics The Old Guard Gets a New Look". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 157. ISBN 0821220764.
  18. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 145: "Writer Denny O'Neil once stated that he and artist Neal Adams 'set out to consciously and deliberately to create a exotic and mysterious that neither we nor Batman were sure what to expect.' Who they came up with was arguably Batman's most cunning adversary: the global eco-terrorist named Ra's al Ghul."
  19. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 145 "Before Batman first encountered one of his greatest adversaries, Ra's al Ghul, he met his daughter, the lovely but lethal Talia [in a story by] writer Denny O'Neil and artist Bob Brown."
  20. Manning, Matthew K.; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "1970s". Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 111. ISBN 978-1465424563. Two-Face was reintroduced for the Bronze Age in this collaboration by writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams.
  21. Greenberger and Manning, p. 161 and 163 "In 1973, O'Neil alongside frequent collaborator Neal Adams forged the landmark 'The Joker's Five-Way Revenge' in Batman #251, in which the Clown Prince of Crime returned to his murderous ways, killing his victims with his trademark Joker venom and taking much delight from their sufferings."
  22. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156: "After decades as an irritating prankster, Batman's greatest enemy re-established himself as a homicidal harlequin in this issue...this classic tale by writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams introduced a dynamic that remains to this day: the Joker's dependence on Batman as his only worthy opponent."
  23. Greenberger and Manning, p. 30: "It was Dick Giordano who, among many other similar feats, drew the March 1976 fan-favorite issue #457 of Detective Comics to illustrate the fabled Denny O'Neil yarn 'There is No Hope in Crime Alley'."
  24. Manning "1970s" in Dougall (2014), p. 131: "The original female counterpart to Batman, Batwoman Kathy Kane was seemingly this issue's lead feature written by Dennis O'Neal and illustrated by Don Newton."
  25. Manning "1980s" in Dougall (2014), p. 136: "One of the most important creators ever to work on Batman, writer/artist Frank Miller drew his first Bstman story in this issue. While it featured five self-contained tales, the story 'Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive', written by Denny O'Neil and penciled by Miller was the standout."
  26. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 144 "New editor Julius Schwartz, new scripter Denny O'Neil, and regular artist Curt Swan removed the Man of Steel's greatest weakness from the face of the Earth."
  27. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 155 Shazam! #1 (Feb. 1973) "In 1972, DC acquired the rights to Captain Marvel and in 1973 they launched the series Shazam!, which re-established the Captain Marvel mythos." " Responsible for resurrecting the lightning-charged champion, writer Denny O'Neil and original artist C. C. Beck together explained Cap's absence."
  28. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 157 The Shadow #1 (Oct.-Nov. 1973) "Writer Denny O'Neil and artist Mike Kaluta presented their atmospheric interpretation of writer Walter B. Gibson's pulp-fiction mystery man of the 1930s."
  29. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 163 "DC again translated pulp fiction into comics with a revival of the icy-eyed 1930s hero, the Avenger. Writer Denny O'Neil and artist Al McWilliams adapted the novel Justice, Inc. by "Kenneth Robeson" (a.k.a. writer Paul Ernst)."
  30. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 171 "After a four-year hiatus, Green Lantern's ongoing series made a triumphant return to DC's publishing schedule...Returning writer Denny O'Neil partnered himself with artist Mike Grell, choosing to focus the title on sci-fi and super-heroics."
  31. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 178: "Writer/artist Neal Adams proclaimed that Superman vs. Muhammad Ali was "the best comic book" he and co-writer Denny O'Neil had ever produced."
  32. Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1980s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 114. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Denny O'Neil and artist Frank Miller...used their considerable talents in this rare collaboration that teamed two other legends – Dr. Strange and Spider-Man.
  33. Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 120: "Writer Denny O'Neil teamed with artist Frank Miller to concoct a Spider-Man annual that played to both their strengths. Miller and O'Neil seemed to flourish in the gritty world of street crime so tackling a Spider/Punisher fight was a natural choice."
  34. Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 116: "Writer Denny O'Neil's newest contribution to the Spider-Man mythos would come in the form of psychic Madame Web, a character introduced with the help of artist John Romita, Jr."
  35. Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 118: "In this issue, award-winning writer Denny O'Neil, with collaborator John Romita Jr., introduced Hydro-Man."
  36. DeFalco, Tom "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 211: "Jim was the natural choice to replace [Stark] as Iron Man when Tony's problem's with alcohol prevented him from doing the job. Jim continued in his role until The Invincible Iron Man #199 (Oct. 1985)."
  37. Dennis O'Neil (editor) at the Grand Comics Database
  38. Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 227 "Formerly part of the Charlton Comics line, the Question carved his mysterious niche into the DC Universe with the help of writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Denys Cowan."
  39. Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 241: "Written by Dennis O'Neil with art by Edward Hannigan, 'Shaman' helped jump-start this popular new title."
  40. Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 250: "Armageddon 2001 was the DC Comics event of the summer...Written by Archie Goodwin and Denny O'Neil, and drawn by penciler Dan Jurgens."
  41. Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 255: "Azrael, one of the most important characters of the modern Batman mythos, was dropped right under the noses of an unsuspecting reading populace in the debut issue of Batman: Sword of Azrael by esteemed bat-scribe Denny O'Neil, talented young penciler Joe Quesada, and inker extraordinaire Kevin Nowlan."
  42. Manning "1990s" in Dougall (2014), p. 198: "The third and final installment of the Ra's al Ghul hardcover trilogy arrived in this origin volume by writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Norm Breyfogle."
  43. O'Neil, Dennis (2005). Batman Begins. New York, New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 0-345-47946-7.
  44. O'Neil, Dennis (2008). The Dark Knight. New York, New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 0-425-22286-1.
  45. McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 163 "Richard Dragon, Kung-Fu Fighter was based on the 1974 novel Dragon's Fists by "Jim Dennis" (the shared pseudonym of comic book writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Jim Berry)."
  46. Dennis O'Neil at ComicsMix
  47. Mithra, Kuljit (July 1998). "Interview With Jim Shooter". Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  48. Kraft, David Anthony; Salicup, Jim (April 1983). "Frank Miller's Ronin". Comics Interview (2). Fictioneer Books. pp. 8, 13.
  49. Shooter, Jim. "Bullpen Bulletins," Marvel comics cover-dated November 1983.
  50. Cronin, Brian (October 12, 2006). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #72". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2013. Give Denny O’Neil credit for that. He started it by naming Optimus Prime. Generally, Hasbro wanted more literal names for most of the toys, but for some of the really major toys, they preferred names with more grandeur to them.
  51. Daniels "Who Killed Robin" p. 201
  52. David, Peter (December 25, 1998). "Con Voyage to Mexico City". Comics Buyer's Guide #1310. Reprinted at, June 24, 2013.
  53. "An Exclusive Interview with Dean 'Dino' Haspiel, Rock Star in Cartoonist's Clothing". October 2007. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.
  54. 1 2 3 Wells, John (December 2010). "Green Lantern/Green Arrow: And Through Them Change an Industry". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (45): 39–54.
  55. "1971 Academy of Comic Book Arts Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
  56. O'Neil entry, Who's Who in Comic Books: 1928–1999. Accessed Feb. 3, 2016.
  57. Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Denny O'Neil The Emergence of Relevance" Fifty Who Made DC Great: 39 (1985), DC Comics

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