Captain (cricket)

Graeme Smith holds the record for most Test matches as captain, as well as most Test wins. He led South Africa from 2003 to 2014.[1]
Some countries opt for a split captaincy, with different captains for different formats to manage workload. Mushfiqur Rahim (left) captains Bangladesh in Tests, and Mashrafe Mortaza (right) leads the team in ODIs and T20Is.

The captain of a cricket team, often referred to as the skipper,[2] is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of a regular player. As in other sports, the captain is usually experienced and has good communication skills, who is likely to be one of the most regular members of the team; indeed the captain often has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, and where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are often collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, and shrewdness in the field, may contribute significantly to the team's success.

Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team typically shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports.[3]

Captain's responsibilities

During a match

The toss

Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails. The captain who wins the toss is given the choice of whether to bat or bowl first.[3] The decision usually depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is likely to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast.

The decision also depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be much harder to take wickets later in the match. Similarly a side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen.[4]

Fielding positions

The captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will usually be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, and the captain's assessment of the state of the match (and hence whether to set an attacking or a defensive field).[3]


The captain decides when each bowler will bowl. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl; alternatively, keeping the bowler on may be deemed the best chance of getting the batsman out or restricting the scoring rate. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen. The captain may also change the bowlers around to introduce variation, and to prevent the batsmen getting "set".[3]

In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, and that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are usually looking to take risks to attack and score quickly.[3]

In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it.[3]

Batting order

When the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain usually changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialize in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a naturally attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is 'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is 'out of form'.[3]

If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play, especially if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem particularly confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the night watchman does not get out before the end of play then the specialist batsman will have been protected, and will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are likely to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimized, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat.[3]


The captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but usually only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat.[3]


In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides whether to impose the follow-on.[3]


The captain is also consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is usually given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match then the captain may refuse. (As from 2012 runners are not allowed in test cricket and injured batsmen are required to continue batting with the injury or retire hurt.)[5]

Other duties

As well as decisions taken either immediately before or during a match, captains also often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practice, and for how long. In professional cricket the captain often has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, and may also decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, and how members of the squad who are not regularly selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice.[3]

Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches.[6]


Vice-captains are sometimes considered the full-time successor to the incumbent captain. Michael Clarke was Australia's vice-captain for three years before succeeding Ricky Ponting as captain in 2011.[7]

The captain may be assisted by a vice-captain. This is particularly useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding. Some teams also allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, discipline, field-setting and so on. Sometimes the role of vice-catkin is seen as preparation for the player becoming the future captain of the side, although this does not always happen.[8]

Current captains

Full ICC members

Nation Captain Vice Captain
 Australia Steve Smith
David Warner
 Bangladesh Mushfiqur Rahim (Test)
Mashrafe Mortaza (ODI & T20I)
Tamim Iqbal (Test)
Shakib Al Hasan (ODI & T20I)
 England Alastair Cook (Test)
Eoin Morgan (ODI & T20I)
Joe Root (Test)
Jos Buttler (ODI & T20I)
 India Virat Kohli (Test)
MS Dhoni (ODI & T20I)
Ajinkya Rahane (Test)
Virat Kohli (ODI & T20I)
 New Zealand Kane Williamson
Ross Taylor (Test)
Martin Guptill (ODI & T20I)
 Pakistan Misbah-ul-Haq (Test)
Azhar Ali (ODI)
Sarfraz Ahmed (T20I)
Azhar Ali (Test)
Sarfraz Ahmed (ODI)
Imad Wasim (T20I)
 South Africa AB de Villiers (Test & ODI)
Faf du Plessis (T20I)
Faf du Plessis (Test & ODI)
AB de Villiers (T20I)
 Sri Lanka Angelo Mathews Dinesh Chandimal
 West Indies Jason Holder (Test & ODI)
Carlos Brathwaite (T20I)
Kraigg Brathwaite (Test)
Marlon Samuels (ODI)
Dwayne Bravo (T20I)
 Zimbabwe Graeme Cremer (Test, interim)[9] Craig Ervine (Test & ODI)
Malcolm Waller (T20I)

Associate and Affiliate members

Nation Captain Vice Captain
 Afghanistan Asghar Stanikzai Mohammad Shahzad
 Argentina Billy MacDermott
 Belgium Brighton Watambwa
 Bermuda Janeiro Tucker
 Botswana Karabo Modise
 Canada Amarbir Hansra
 Cayman Islands Ronald Ebanks
 China Jiang Shuyao
 Denmark Michael Pedersen Thomas Hansen
 Fiji Jone Seuvou
 France Arun Ayyavooraju
 Germany Asif Khan
 Gibraltar Iain Latin
 Guernsey Jamie Nussbaumer
 Hong Kong Jamie Atkinson Waqas Barkat
 Ireland William Porterfield Kevin O'Brien
 Israel Herschel Gutman
 Italy Damian Crowley Gayashan Munasinghe
 Japan Tatsuro Chino
 Jersey Peter Gough
 Kenya Rakep Patel
 Kuwait Hisham Mirza Abdullah Akhunzada
 Malaysia Ahmed Faiz Shafiq Sharif
 Namibia Nicolaas Scholtz
   Nepal Paras Khadka Gyanendra Malla
 Netherlands Peter Borren Michael Swart
 Nigeria Kunle Adegbola Dotun Olatunji
 Papua New Guinea Chris Amini
 Scotland Preston Mommsen Kyle Coetzer
 Oman Sultan Ahmed
 South Korea Kyungsik Kim
 Singapore Saad Janjua Chetan Suryawanshi
 Suriname Shazam Ramjohn
 Tanzania Hamisi Abdallah
 Thailand Ryan Raina
 Uganda Frank Nsubuga
 United Arab Emirates Mohammad Tauqir Amjad Ali
 United States Neil McGarrell Timroy Allen
 Vanuatu Andrew Mansale
 Zambia Sarfraz Patel Imran Patel



  1. "Records / Test matchesK Individual records (captains, players, umpires) / Most matches as captain". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  2. "skipper Definitions". Wordnik. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "The Role of the Captain". DangerMouse. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  4. "Numbers Suggest the Toss Has Never Been More Important in Test Cricket". Bleacher Report. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  5. "Runners abolished, ODI and run-out laws tweaked". ESPN Cricinfo. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  6. Gollapudi, Nagraj (26 June 2015). "Bowlers benefit from ODI rule changes". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  7. Brettig, Daniel (8 August 2015). "Clarke announces retirement after Ashes". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  8. "Enfield Cricket Club - Captains & Player Responsibilities". Enfield Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  9. Zimbabwe sack Masakadza, Whatmore. ESPN Cricinfo

External links

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