For the language, see Braj language.
"Brij Bhoomi" redirects here. For the 1982 film, see Brij Bhoomi (film).
Historical region of North India
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Location Uttar Pradesh
Language Brij bhasha
Historical capitals Mathura

Brij (Hindi: बृज) (also known as Braj or Brijbhoomi) is a region mainly in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan. Brij, though never a clearly defined political region in India, is very well demarcated culturally. The area stretches from Mathura, Jalesar, Agra, Hathras and Aligarh right up to Etah, Mainpuri and Farrukhabad districts.[1] It is considered to be the land of Krishna and is derived from the Sanskrit word vraja. The main cities in the region are Mathura, Jalesar, Bharatpur, Agra, Hathras, Dholpur, Aligarh, Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, Kasganj and Firozabad.


The term "Braj" means 'Pasture', and a settlement of herders and cattle breeders or Abode of Yadavs/Aheers or yaduvanshsthali[2]


Sculpture of woman from ancient Mathura ca. 2nd century AD.

Geographically and culturally Brajbhoomi is a part of the Ganges-Yamuna-Doab (ganges valley and upper indus) region, which has had an extensive influence on the entirety of Indian Subcontinent culture. Brajbhoomi falls right in the middle of the Doab. The area was an important part of the Madhya-desha or Aryavarta or midlands.

The region lies well within the golden triangle of Delhi-Jaipur-Agra. Covering an area of about 3,800 km2 today, Brajbhoomi can be divided into two distinct units: the eastern part in the trans-Yamuna tract which includes Gokul, Mahavan, Sadabad, Baldeo, Mat and Manigarhi (Nauhjheel) Bajna; and the western side of the Yamuna covering the Mathura region that encompasses Vrindavan, Govardhan, Kusum Sarovar, Barsana and Nandgaon. Contrary to the popular belief that Braj is Mathura, Vrindavan and Goverdhan alone, this region comprises Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, Kaman Tehsil of Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and Hodel, Hassanpur of Palwal district of Haryana, and it spans 1300 villages.

The land of Braj starts from Kotban near Hodel (about 95 km from Delhi).[3] It covers Agra, Aligarh, Hathras Bharatpur bareilly and Dholpur; in broader terms Firozabad Mainpuri Etah kasganj Etawah and Gwalior Morena Bhind area are also part of Brajbhoomi or Braj Pradesh.


The residents or natives of Braj are called Brijwasi. Braj bhasha or Brij bhasha, closely related to spoken Hindi with a soft accent, is spoken throughout the region.

Braj is famous for its sweets and Chaat. Pede from Mathura, Petha from Agra, Soan Papri from Kasganj, maal puye from Nauhjheel, Soan halwa from Raya, chamcham from Iglas, Boora & Batasa from Hathras and Milkcake from Bajna are famous throughout India.

Hathras is also known for its sindoor and heeng .

Region and followers of Lord Krishna

Balarama and Krishna temple at Vrindavan

The region is closely related to the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Krishna is said to have spent his childhood and adolescence in Braj and therefore, the region has an important status in Hinduism.

Krishna performed his numerous popularly called his lilas in the 137 sacred forests, at the 1000 Kunds, on the numerous holy hills and on the banks of the river Yamuna. In Srimad Bhagawat, he himself says to his foster father, Nandbaba that Braj is a culture of forests and hills and not of city. Nowhere in the history of mankind, can one find such an emphasis on the harmony of human life with the environment.

Thus, the Brajbhasa, the language of Braj was the language of choice of the Bhakti movement, or the neo-Vaishnavite religions, the central deity of which was Krishna. Therefore, most of the literature in this language pertains to Krishna composed in medieval times.

Many international Hindu communities and disciplic successions established temples in the heart of Braj, the holy city of Vrindavan.

Protection of the heritage

Gate of Shet Lukhmeechund's Temple, a photo by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey, 1860's.

The vast heritage of the region is thought to be deteriorating. Out of the 1000 kunds which used to be the source of fresh and potable drinking water source and rain water harvesting, 90% of them have dried and silted up, and been encroached upon and reduced to sludge tanks. Out of the 137 forests, only 3 are left and the rest have been cut down. Out of the 27 picturesque ghats on the banks of river Yamuna, only one remains and rest have been encroached upon and smuggled out. Due to the wide scale illegal mining of Braj hills, the heritage spots associated with Krishna are being lost. There is an overall destruction of the most culturally vibrant and heritage region of Vaishnavas, Hindus, Indians and mankind on the whole.

Efforts are being made by The Braj Foundation, a voluntary organization towards the revival of the 5000-year-old holy region of Braj. The Braj Foundation is dedicated to the all round development of Braj – the culturally vibrant region lying in close vicinity to Taj Mahal and associated with the legend of Sri Radha-Krishna. The Foundation works directly on projects to restore Braj as an idealistic rural society by conserving its 5000-year-old heritage and environment through planning, conservation, renovation and encouraging local community participation.The organisation is headed by Vineet Narain

The current focus is on the restoration of 1000 ancient water retention tanks (kunds), revival of 48 important sacred groves, regeneration of around 18,000 acres (73 km²) of hilly terrain into lush-green pasture lands and forests and the resurrection of River Yamuna. Till now the foundation has restored 46 ancient water bodies and 1 sacred forest out of the 3 forests left in the entire region. A small group of dedicated professionals has achieved all this in a period of 10 years.

The Foundation is making several interventions in areas like organic farming, dairy industry, rural education, health care etc. towards the realization of its broader mandate. Some Indians still carry the name of Brijen which is one way how the story of Krishna coming down to the Earth will be preserved in oral tradition.

Further reading


  1. Lucia Michelutti (2002). "Sons of Krishna: the politics of Yadav community formation in a North Indian town" (PDF). PhD Thesis Social Anthropology. London School of Economics and Political Science University of London. p. 49. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  2. Lucia Michelutti (2002). "Sons of Krishna: the politics of Yadav community formation in a North Indian town" (PDF). PhD Thesis Social Anthropology. London School of Economics and Political Science University of London. p. 46. Retrieved 20 May 2015.

External links

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