Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür

Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Khagan of the Mongols or Great Yuan
Reign May 1378 – November 1388
Coronation May 1378
Predecessor Biligtü Khan
Successor Jorightu Khan
Born 1342[1]
Died November 1388 (aged 45–46)
Tuul River, Mongolia
Full name
Mongolian: ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠰᠲᠥᠮᠥᠷ
Chinese: 脫古思帖木兒
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Era dates
Xuanguang (宣光) 1378–1379
Tianyuan (天元) 1379–1388
Posthumous name
Ningxiao Huangdi (寧孝皇帝)
Temple name
Yizong (益宗)
House Borjigin
Dynasty Northern Yuan
Father Toghun Temür

Uskhal Khan (Төгс Төмөр хаан), born Tögüs Temür (temple name: 益宗, Yizong; r. 1378–1388), was a Mongol Emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia. He was the last powerful khan of the Mongols until the reign of Dayan Khan.[2]

Tögüs Temür was Biligtü Khan's younger brother and son of Toghan Temur, the last Yuan emperor in China. He succeeded to the throne with the title of Uskhal Khan (Усхал хаан) after Biligtü Khan died in 1378. During the funeral of the late king, the Ming court sent an embassy to participate in it and released the Mongol prince, Maidarbal, who had been captured at the battle of Yingchang in 1378.

Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür mobilized troops near Yingchang and Karakorum.[3] He continued to press the Ming from the north, cooperating with Naghachu of the Jalayir in Manchuria. The Ming launched a massive attack on Mongolia in return in 1380, sacking Karakorum.

The Ming army crushed the Mongol garrison under Iliyasan in North China in June 1380. Uskhal Khan's commanders, Öljei-Buqa and Nair-Buqa, invaded Lulun city, killing the Ming officer Liu Guang in the same year. The Ming dispatched a large army against the Mongols the next year.

Hongwu Emperor decided to exterminate Naghachu's force in Manchuria in 1387 and two sides suffered heavier losses at a battle near Changchung city. Tögüs Temür suddenly faced a predicament in 1387 when Naghachu surrendered to the Ming due to a devastating famine. The Ming now turned their attention to the Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür who lived in Yingchang. In 1388 he was raided by the Ming on the Buir Lake. In his escape to Karakorum, he was suddenly attacked and defeated on the Tuul River by Yesüder, a descendant of Ariq Böke, who allied with the Oirats.[4] Yesüder's general killed the king and his son, though, Uskhal Khan intended to flee westwards to join his commander Markhas. This marked the decline of the Kublaid power and the rise of the Oirats in Mongolia.

See also


  1. Sh.Tseyen-Oidov – Chinggis bogdoos Ligden khutaghtu hurtel (khaad), p.129
  2. Ed.Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8, p.227
  3. L.Jamsran-Mongol ulsyin tuuh, vol>III, p.28
  4. Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Reuven Amitai, David Morgan-The Mongol empire and its legacy, p.293
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Died: 1388
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Succeeded by
Jorightu Khan Yesüder

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