The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.
Spermatids are connected by cytoplasmic material and have superfluous cytoplasmic material around their nuclei.
The spermatids begin to grow a living thread, develop a thickened mid-piece where the mitochondria become localised, and form an acrosome. Spermatid DNA also undergoes packaging, becoming highly condensed. The DNA is packaged firstly with specific nuclear basic proteins, which are subsequently replaced with protamines during spermatid elongation. The resultant tightly packed chromatin is transcriptionally inactive.
In 2016 scientists at Nanjing Medical University claimed they had produced cells resembling mouse spermatids artificially from stem cells. They injected these spermatids into mouse eggs and produced pups.
- Cyranoski, David (25 February 2016). "Researchers claim to have made artificial mouse sperm in a dish". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19453. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Histology image: 17804loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Male Reproductive System: testis, early spermatids"
- Histology image: 17805loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Male Reproductive System: testis, late spermatids"
- Histology at okstate.edu