Republicanism in New Zealand

Republicanism in New Zealand is a theoretical political concept, the implementation of which would result in changing New Zealand's current constitutional monarchy to that of a republic, as ruled by laws alone rather than with a monarch. This concept is expressed either individually—usually in academic circles—or through the country's one republic lobby group. Initially "republicanism" was a pejorative term for anti-government agitation, while contemporary republicanism in New Zealand focuses on the concepts of independence and constitutional reform, with opposition focusing on the indigenous aspects of the monarchy. Among republicans, the method for which a head of state should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president, some an appointed head of state with little power.


The term "republic" in New Zealand has been used as a protest and a pejorative against the central government and/or royalty, to describe an area independent of the central government.

19th century

The first use of the term "republic" to connote an independent state in New Zealand came in 1840 when Lieutenant Governor William Hobson described the New Zealand Company settlement of Port Nicholson (Wellington), which had its own governing council, as such.[1] Later, Wellington became the centre of agitation by settlers for representative government, which was granted by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. Samuel Revans, who founded the Wellington Settlers' Constitutional Association in 1848, advocated a New Zealand republic.[2]

In 1879 the people of Hawera declared themselves the "Republic of Hawera," due to a campaign by Māori leader Te Whiti against European settlement.[3] They formed their own volunteer units to oppose Te Whiti. In 1881 government troops invaded Parihaka and arrested Te Whiti, bringing the "republic" to an end.

20th century

In the 1911 general election Colonel Allen Bell, the Reform Party candidate for the Raglan seat, advocated the abolition of the monarchy. The armed forces considered that Bell had broken his Oath of Allegiance. He was asked to resign his commission, which he did in January 1912.[4]

In 1966 Bruce Jesson founded the Republican Association of New Zealand, and later the Republican Party in 1967. The party had a stridently nationalist platform.[5] Republican Party activity petered out after the 1969 general election and the party wound up in 1974.

In May 1973, a remit was proposed at the Labour Party national conference to change the flag, declare New Zealand a republic and change the national anthem (then only God Save the Queen, God Defend New Zealand becoming the second anthem in 1977), but this was voted down.[6]

In 1979 the Mana Māori Motuhake Party included republicanism as part of its policy platform. However, the issue was never raised as Mana Māori Motuhake became a member of the Alliance Party.

Jim Bolger, Prime Minister 1990–1997 and leader of the National Party, raised the republic issue in 1994.

In March 1994 the Republican Coalition of New Zealand was formed to promote the move to a republic and Prime Minister Jim Bolger suggested to the 44th Parliament in the Address In Reply debate that New Zealand should become a republic by 2001. Bolger stated that New Zealand's links with Britain were in decline, and that the country should acknowledge that "the tide of history is moving in one direction."[7] The following year Monarchist League of New Zealand was established to defend the constitutional monarchy.

Bolger denied that his views relate to his Irish heritage.[7] Bolger spoke to Queen Elizabeth about the issue of New Zealand becoming a republic when he was premier and recalled "I have more than once spoken with Her Majesty about my view that New Zealand would at some point elect its own Head of State, we discussed the matter in a most sensible way and she was in no way surprised or alarmed and neither did she cut my head off."[8]

In 1998, Richard Nottage, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Trade, called for New Zealand to consider becoming a republic, arguing that the position of the "British monarch" [sic] as head of state "looks strange in Asian eyes".[9]

In 1999 the Republican Coalition relaunched itself as the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand, similar to the Australian Republican Movement, due to the 1999 Australian republic referendum, and again renamed itself in 2014 as New Zealand Republic.

The debate

Arguments for change

Supporters of a New Zealand republic say:

Many republicans believe that the notions of hereditary, primogeniture and religious discrimination inherent in the succession of the throne have no place in New Zealand's democratic and egalitarian society. They also emphasise that government devolves from the consent of the governed, not from an abstract concept such as "the Crown".

At the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting of October 2011, the leaders of the 16 Commonwealth realms agreed that they would support change to their respective succession laws regarding male primogeniture, and allow the monarch to marry a Roman Catholic. The ban on Catholics from being the monarch would remain, because the monarch has to be in "Communion with the Church of England."[17]

Arguments against change

Supporters of the monarchy in New Zealand say:


Supporters of the monarchy argue it costs New Zealand taxpayers only a small outlay for royal engagements and tours, and the modest expenses of the Governor-General's establishment. They state "[t]his figure is about one dollar per person per year", about $4.3 million per annum.[24] An analysis by New Zealand Republic in 2010 claimed the office of Governor-General cost New Zealand taxpayers about $7.6 million in ongoing costs.[25] They compared this cost to the President of Ireland, a head of state of a country with a similar population size, who cost €3.4 million – NZ$6 million on the exchange rate at the time.[26] However, Monarchy New Zealand accused the republic supporters of arbitrarily inflating the costs on the Governor-General, pointing out the Irish President's cost was closer to NZ$12.8 million once the extra costs were included.[27]

Public opinion

The New Zealand public are generally in favour of the retention of the monarchy, with polls showing it to have between 50 and 70% support.[28] Polls indicate that many New Zealanders see the monarchy as being of little day-to-day relevance; a One News Colmar Brunton poll in 2002 found that 58% of the population believed the monarchy has little or no relevance to their lives.[29] National Business Review poll in 2004 found 57% of respondents believed New Zealand would become a republic "in the future".[30]

However, the institution still enjoys the support of New Zealanders, particularly those born before World War II. Some show a majority of younger New Zealanders support a republic.[31] With the approval of the current monarch, and the position of the Treaty of Waitangi under a republic remaining a concern to Māori and other New Zealanders alike, as well as the question of what constitutional form a republic might take unresolved, support for becoming a republic is still the view of around a third to 40% of the population.[31] On 21 April 2008, New Zealand Republic released a poll of New Zealanders showing 43% support the monarchy should The Prince of Wales become King of New Zealand, and 41% support a republic under the same scenario.[32] A poll by the New Zealand Herald in January 2010, before a visit by Prince William to the country found 33.3% wanted The Prince of Wales to be the next monarch, with 30.2% favouring Prince William. 29.4% of respondents preferred a republic in the event Elizabeth II died or abdicated.[33]

An October 2011 survey of 500 business professionals asked "What Is Your Level Of Support For New Zealand Becoming A Republic?". 27% said not at all, 24% said somewhat opposed, 23.1% were neutral, 14.8% said moderately in favour and 11.1% said strongly in favour.[34]

On the eve of a Royal tour by HRH Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall in November 2012, a ONE News/Colmar Brunton poll reported 70% of people questioned responded they wanted to keep the Queen as head of state, while 19 percent supported New Zealand becoming a republic.[35][36] Following the tour, a different poll by Curia Market Research commissioned by New Zealand Republic found 51% of respondents wanted Charles as King once the Queen's reign ends, while 41% supported a republic.[37]

On 17 July 2013, a televised debate on TV3's The Vote held three polls, two separate votes by the studio audience at the start and end of the programme, and one via Twitter, Facebook, web and text voting, on the question "Should we ditch the Royals?" The first studio audience vote before the show was 43% yes, and the second after the show was 65%, while the public vote result was 41% yes and 59% no.[38]

Political party positions

Three political parties currently with members in New Zealand's parliament have a policy of holding a binding referendum on the republic issue.[39]


The Labour Party adopted a policy of holding a binding referendum on the issue at their 2013 conference.[39] Andrew Little supports a New Zealand republic, saying "[w]hen it comes to our constitutional arrangements in New Zealand I have a firm view that our head of state should come from New Zealand."[40] Former leader David Cunliffe[41] has expressed his support for a republic. Labour Prime Minister Helen Clark stated that she thought "[t]he idea of a nation such as New Zealand being ruled by a head of state some 20,000km away is absurd. It is inevitable that New Zealand will become a republic. It is just a matter of when the New Zealand people are bothered enough to talk about it - it could be 10 years, or it could be 20 years, but it will happen."[42][43] Deputy Prime Minister Michael Cullen, however, declared that he supported the monarchy, stating in 2004 he was "a sort of token monarchist in the Cabinet these days."[44] However, in 2010 he repudiated that stance, taking the view that New Zealand should move towards a republic once the Queen's reign ends.[45] Former Prime Minister David Lange expressed support for a New Zealand republic, stating: "Do such things matter? They certainly do. We suffer in this country from a lack of emotional focus... New Zealand will become a republic just as Britain will be blurred into Europe".[46]


National's constitution specifies that the Party's visions and values include "Loyalty to our country, its democratic principles and our Sovereign as Head of State". In 2001 a constitutional policy task force recommended a referendum on the monarchy once the Queen's reign ends, along with referendums on the future of the Maori seats and the number of MPs.[47] Only the policy on Maori seats was passed by the party's regional conferences. Former MPs John Carter, and Wayne Mapp and Richard Worth have been among the most vocal supporters of the monarchy within the party. At the 2011 elections, former Chair of Monarchy New Zealand Simon O'Connor was elected as MP for Tamaki and his Deputy Paul Foster-Bell was later elected a List MP in 2013 and both were re-elected at the 2014 election. At the 2014 election the former Chair of New Zealand Republic, Lewis Holden, was announced as Candidate for the Rimutaka seat but failed to enter Parliament with Chris Hipkins retaining the electorate and holding a low list ranking. Among the 2014 Caucus of new National Members of Parliament, a number of portraits of the Queen have been placed in their Wellington offices through an initiative led by Monarchy New Zealand. Prime Minister John Key has said he is "not convinced it [a republic] will be a big issue in the short term",[48] but that he thinks a republic is "inevitable"; however, since this statement he has affirmed his support for the monarchy and has made it clear a republic will not happen "on his watch".[49]

Minor parties

Support for a republic is strongest amongst the supporters of the Green Party, and it is party policy to support a "democratic and participatory process, such as referenda".[50] Former Green MP Keith Locke had a Private Member's Bill drawn on the issue, the Head of State Referenda Bill, for a referendum on the issue, but it was voted down at its first reading in parliament.

United Future New Zealand leader Peter Dunne is a supporter of a New Zealand republic. The party has a policy of "...a public education process on constitutional matters, leading towards consideration of New Zealand as a republic within the Commonwealth in the future."[51]

No other minor parties in parliament have polices on the issue.


In 2004 former Governor-General Dame Catherine Tizard said publicly that the monarch should be replaced by a New Zealand head of state. Her predecessor as Governor-General, Sir Paul Reeves, has stated that he would not oppose a republic. Sir Michael Hardie Boys has supported the status quo.[19] On 29 July 2006, outgoing Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright stated she had no views as to whether New Zealand becomes a republic, noting: "We often overlook the intense loyalty and love the Māori people have for the Queen - probably more intense than many people of European descent. This is a history that's never going to die."[52]

Constitutional issues

New Zealand is a unitary state and does not have a codified, entrenched constitution. Some have argued New Zealand is a "de facto" republic.[43][53] New Zealand has made constitutional changes without difficulty in the past, such as the abolition of its upper house of parliament in 1951, the introduction of proportional representation in 1996 and most recently the creation of the Supreme Court of New Zealand as the court of final appeal. Legal academics have espoused the view that the legal changes required for a republic are not complex.[54][55][56][57] Some have argued that the changes required are less radical than the move to MMP in 1996.[58]

The Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi was an agreement signed between Māori tribes and representatives of the British Crown in 1840. Because of the relationship between Māori and the Crown, the Treaty of Waitangi is often cited as a constitutional issue for a New Zealand republic.[54] Some academics expressed concern that governments could use republicanism to evade treaty responsibilities.[59] However, with the division of the Crown between the United Kingdom and New Zealand following the passing of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947, the "Crown in Right of New Zealand" became party to the Treaty. Legal academics state that the Treaty would be unaffected by New Zealand becoming a republic, as the new head of state would inherit the Crown's responsibilities. In 2004, Professor Noel Cox argued "In strict legal terms, if New Zealand became a republic tomorrow it would make no difference to the Treaty of Waitangi. Speaking as a lawyer, it's a long-established principle that successive governments take on responsibility for previous agreements."[60][61]

Realm of New Zealand

The Realm of New Zealand consists of New Zealand proper and two states in free association, Niue and the Cook Islands. Should New Zealand become a republic, the Realm of New Zealand would continue to exist without New Zealand, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau.[62] This would not be a legal hurdle to a New Zealand republic,[63] and both the Cook Islands and Niue would retain their status as associated states with New Zealand, as New Zealand shares its Head of state with the Cook Islands and Niue in the same way the United Kingdom shares its head of state with the other Commonwealth realms. However, a New Zealand republic would present the issue of independence to the Cook Islands and Niue.

Commonwealth membership

If New Zealand becomes a republic its Commonwealth membership is not affected. Since 1949, Commonwealth realms that become republics remain members unless they withdraw.

Further information: Commonwealth of Nations: Other termination

Recent developments

Constitutional Inquiry

In November 2004, Prime Minister Helen Clark announced the formation of a parliamentary committee of inquiry into the constitution, chaired by United Future New Zealand leader Peter Dunne. In its final report, the committee recommended wider education on the constitution and included a note on the republic issue, asking "Is the nature of New Zealand's head of state, as a monarch, appropriate to New Zealand's evolving national and constitutional identity?".[64]

Head of State Referenda Bill

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Keith Locke's Head of State Referenda Bill for a referendum on the republic issue was drawn from the members' ballot and introduced into Parliament on 14 October 2009.[65] The Bill focused on reforming the Governor-General of New Zealand as a ceremonial head of state, creating a parliamentary republic.[66] Two models of a republic along with the status quo would have been put to a referendum:

On 21 April 2010 the Bill was defeated at its first reading 53 - 68[67] with voting recorded as Ayes 53 being New Zealand Labour 43; Green Party 9; United Future 1 and Noes 68 being New Zealand National 58; ACT New Zealand 5; Māori Party 4; Progressive 1.

See also



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  2. "Dictionary of New Zealand Biography - Samuel Revans". Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  3. "Te Ara - Hawera, Republic of". Retrieved 2006-07-12.
  4. J. A. B. Crawford. "Dictionary of New Zealand Biography - Allen Bell".
  5. Jonathan Milne (April 1996). "The way we were". Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  6. John Moody. "Past Attempts to Change New Zealand's Flag" (PDF). New Zealand Flag Association.
  7. 1 2 Jim Bolger (1998). Bolger: A view from the top - my seven years as Prime Minister. Viking. ISBN 0-670-88369-7.
  8. Maggie Tait (27 April 2007). "Bolger told Queen monarchy's time numbered". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  9. Noel Cox. "National Business Review, 27 March 1998, cited by Noel Cox in Future of the Monarchy in New Zealand New Zealand Politics in Transition". Oxford University Press, Auckland, 2001. Archived from the original on 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
  10. "New Zealanders Dismiss Becoming A Republic". Angus Reid Global Monitor.
  11. "Nine to Noon – interview with Dean Knight". Radio New Zealand. 17 February 2010.
  12. "Anna Davidson, Speech to Youth Parliament, 1999".
  13. Colin James. "The New Zealand Herald, 19 February 2002". Archived from the original on 6 June 2002.
  14. Gavin McLean (2006). "The Governors". Otago University Press: 50
  15. 1 2 3 Geoff Fischer (19 August 2010). "Empire Strikes Back". The Republican.
  16. Holden 2009, p. 23.
  17. "Girls equal in British throne succession". BBC. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  18. "Monarchy New Zealand - Monarchy for the 21st Century". Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  19. 1 2 Jonathan Milne (14 November 2004). "Ditch Queen, say former Governors-General: New Zealand Herald". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  20. Manhire, Toby (9 March 2005). "What the New Zealand press said about ...... Prince Charles". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  21. "Monarchy New Zealand - shared". Monarchy New Zealand. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  22. "Monarchy New Zealand - reserve powers". Monarchy New Zealand. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  23. "Monarchy New Zealand - hereditary?". Monarchy New Zealand. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  24. "Cost of the Monarchy". Monarchy New Zealand. 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
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  26. New Zealand Republic (20 May 2010). "Governor-General more expensive".
  27. "MONARCHY NEW ZEALAND CALLS FOR RESIGNATION OF REPUBLICAN CHAIR" (PDF). Monarchy New Zealand. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
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  29. "NZ premier denies royal snub". BBC. 23 February 2002. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  30. "New Zealanders Resigned to Their Fate". National Business Review. 17 August 2004.
  31. 1 2 Kiwis Divided Over Monarchy (PDF). Research NZ. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
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  33. Kara Segedin (19 January 2010). "Charles and William evens for throne". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
  34. "The Main Report Sacred Cows Survey Results" (PDF). The Main Report. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
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  36. "One News 10 November 2012". 10 November 2012.
  37. "Poll finds Prince Charles' popularity unchanged by visit". TVNZ. 19 December 2012.
  38. "The Vote: Should we ditch the royals?". TV3.
  39. 1 2 Steve Kilgallon (3 November 2013). "Labour agrees vote on Queen". Sunday Star-Times. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  40. "Andrew Little not 'fan-girling' birth of royal baby". One News. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  41. "David Cunliffe: Address-In-Reply speech". Archived from the original on 9 October 2007.
  42. Bates, Stephen (22 February 2002). "Republican pledge greets Queen". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  43. 1 2 "Clark - republic "inevitable"". The Evening Post. 23 February 2002.
  44. Daily Hansard: Clerk of the House of Representatives. Clerk of the House of Representatives. 16 December 2004.
  45. "Cullen: New Zealand should be republic". Herald on Sunday. 29 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  46. David Lange (18 July 1994). Cuttings - God Save Us All. Jonathan Hudson & Associates. ISBN 0-473-02953-7.
  47. "National to debate policy proposals". TVNZ. 23 April 2001.
  48. "Strong backing for MMP referendum". TVNZ. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  49. "Key knocking on door of government". Financial Times. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  50. "Full Policy - Constitutional Reform". Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
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  54. 1 2 FM (Jock) Brookfield (1995). Republican New Zealand: Legal Aspects and Consequences. New Zealand Law Review. p. 310.
  55. Bruce Harris (2004). The Constitutional Future of New Zealand. New Zealand Law Review. p. 267.
  56. Colin James, ed. (2000). Building The Constitution. Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington. p. 269
  57. Andrew Stockley (1996). "Republicanism in New Zealand". Dunmore Press: 119
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  59. Tunks, Andrea. Trainor, Luke, ed. Republicanism in New Zealand. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-86469-256-6.
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  61. Dr Andrew Stockley (1998). ""Of Conventions and Constitutional Change: Lessons for New Zealand" [1998] UNSWLawJl 11; (1998) 21(3) University of New South Wales Law Journal 936". University of New South Wales Law Journal.
  62. David McIntyre (1999). The Strange Death of Dominion Status. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. pp. 193, 196.
  63. "The Strange Death of the Realm of New Zealand: The Implications of a New Zealand Republic for the Cook Islands and Niue by Andrew Townend (2003) VUWLRev 34". Retrieved 2006-12-07.
  64. "Final Report of the Constitutional Inquiry" (PDF). 11 August 2005.
  65. "Parliament of New Zealand Order Paper, Thursday 15 October 2009" (PDF). 15 October 2009.
  66. NZPA (21 February 2002). "Republic Bill near". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  67. (21 April 2010) 662 New Zealand Parliamentary Debates 10373.


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