Reproductive system disease
Reproductive tract infection (RTI) are infections that affect the reproductive tract, which is part of the Reproductive System. For females, reproductive tract infections can be in either the upper reproductive tract (fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus), and the lower reproductive tract (vagina, cervix and vulva); for males these infections are at the penis, testicles, urethra or the vas deferens. The three types of reproductive tract infections are endogenous infections, iatrogenic infections and the more commonly known sexually transmitted infections. Each has its own specific causes and symptoms, caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus or other organism. Some infections are easily treatable and can be cured, some are more difficult, and some are non curable such as AIDS and herpes.
Examples of congenital abnormalities of the reproductive system include:
- Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands caused by a deficiency or both testes from the scrotum.
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen.
- Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits which are not clearly male or female.
Examples of cancers
Examples of cancers of the reproductive system include:
- Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate gland
- Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammary gland.
- Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary.
- Penile cancer - Cancer of penis.
- Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus.
- Testicular cancer - Cancer of the testicle/(plural:testes).
- Cervical Cancer - Cancer of the cervix.
Examples of functional problems
Examples of functional problems of the reproductive system include:
- Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or maintain an erection.
- Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production.
- Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall.
- Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level of sexual desire and interest.
- Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition of decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity
- Premature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation.
- Dysmenorrhea - Is a medical condition of pain during menstruation that interferes with daily activities
It is also known that disruption of the endocrine system by certain chemicals adversely affects the development of the reproductive system and can cause vaginal cancer. Many other reproductive diseases have also been link to exposure to synthetic and environmental chemicals. Common chemicals with known links to reproductive disorders include: lead, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, styrene, toluene, BPA (Bisphenol A) and pesticides.
- Reproductive Tract Infections: An Introductory Overview, from Population Council. Retrieved January 2013
- HIV, AIDS, and Sexually Transmitted Infections, at EngenderHealth. Retrieved January 2013
- Reproductive System Diseases : Types, Signs and Symptoms and Causes
- "Endocrine Disruptors" (PDF). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Infertility and Related Reproductive Disorders. 2003. Ted Schettler, MD. The collaborative on health and the environment.