Pulmonary valve stenosis
|Pulmonary valve stenosis|
|Pulmonary valve stenosis|
|Classification and external resources|
|ICD-10||I37.0, I37.2, Q22.1|
Pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) is a heart valve disorder in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve. This type of pulmonic stenosis results in the reduction of flow of blood to the lungs. Valvular pulmonic stenosis accounts for 80% of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. While the most common cause of pulmonary valve stenosis is congenital heart disease, it may also be due to a malignant carcinoid tumor. Both stenosis of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary valve stenosis are forms of pulmonic stenosis (nonvalvular and valvular, respectively). PVS was the key finding that led Jacqueline Noonan to identify the syndrome now called Noonan syndrome.
Symptoms and Signs
In regards to the cause of pulmonary valve stenosis a very high percentage are congenital, the right ventricular flow is hindered (or obstructed by this). The cause in turn is divided into: valvular, external and intrinsic (when it is acquired).
The pathophysiology of pulmonary valve stenosis consists of the valve leaflets becoming too thick (therefore not separate one from another), which can cause high pulmonary pressure, and pulmonary hypertension. This however, does not mean the cause is always congenital.
The left ventricle can be changed physically, these changes are a direct result of right ventricular hypertrophy. Once the obstruction is subdued, it (the left ventricle) can return to normal.
The diagnosis of pulmonary valve stenosis can be achieved via echocardiogram, as well as a variety of other means among them are: ultrasound, in which images of the heart chambers in utero where the tricuspid valve has thickening (or due to Fallot's tetralogy, Noonan's syndrome, and other congenital defects) and in infancy auscultation of the heart can reveal identification of a murmur.
In terms of treatment for pulmonary valve stenosis, valve replacement or surgical repair (depending upon whether the stenosis is in the valve or vessel) may be indicated. If the valve stenosis is of congenital origin, balloon valvuloplasty is another option, depending on the case. Valves made from animal or human tissue (are used for valve replacement), in adults metal valves can be used.
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