east2331 (East Palaungic)|
west2791 (West Palaungic)
The nearly thirty Palaungic or Palaung–Wa languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages.
Most of the Palaungic languages lost the contrastive voicing of the ancestral Austroasiatic consonants, with the distinction often shifting to the following vowel. In the Wa branch, this is generally realized as breathy voice vowel phonation; in Palaung–Riang, as a two-way register tone system. The Angkuic languages have contour tone — the U language, for example, has four tones, high, low, rising, falling, — but these developed from vowel length and the nature of final consonants, not from the voicing of initial consonants.
Diffloth & Zide (1992)
The Palaungic family includes at least three branches, with the position of some languages as yet unclear. Lamet, for example, is sometimes classified as a separate branch. The following classification follows that of Diffloth & Zide (1992), as quoted in Sidwell (2009:131).
- Western Palaungic (Palaung–Riang)
- Eastern Palaungic
- Danau (Khano)
- Palaungic proper
- Western (Riang–Palaung)
- Lamet (Xmet)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "East Palaungic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "West Palaungic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Three Austroasiatic branches and the ASJP (Fig. 23)
- Hall, Elizabeth. 2010. A Phonology of Muak Sa-aak. M.A. thesis, Payap University.
- Sidwell, Paul. 2014. "Khmuic classification and homeland". Mon-Khmer Studies 43.1:47-56
- Gordon, Darren. (2013) ''A selective Palaungic linguistic bibliography. Mon-Khmer Studies vol. 42 Mahidol University and SIL International.
- Cheeseman, Nathaniel; Elizabeth Hall and Darren Gordon. (2015) Palaungic Linguistic Bibliography with Selected Annotations. Mon-Khmer Studies vol. 44 pages i-liv.
- Sidwell, Paul. 2015. The Palaungic Languages: Classification, Reconstruction and Comparative Lexicon. München: Lincom Europa.
- http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
- http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-6714-B@view Palaungic languages in RWAAI Digital Archive