Ottoman Egypt covers two main periods:
- Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867): the region came under the direct rule of the Ottoman Empire with their victory over the Mamluk Sultanate. The interruption of the Napoleon campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) allowed the takeover of Muhammad Ali Pasha and his dynasty.
- Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914), an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Ali's self-appointed status as a viceroyalty or Khedive was officially acknowledged in 1867, though by then Egypt was subject to the influence of France and especially the United Kingdom, who completed the Suez Canal in 1869.