Haplogroup R2, or haplogroup R-M479, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker M479. It has been concentrated geographically in South Asia since prehistoric times.
Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. They are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.
Y-chromosomes which are positive to the M479 SNP and negative to the M124, P249, P267, L266, PAGES00004, and L381 SNPs, are categorized as belonging to Paragroup R-M479*. It should be noted that exclusive studies have not been done to determine frequency or presence of R-M479* and figures below are not indicative of R-M479* frequency, especially within South Asia since Pakistan is the only South Asian country included within the referenced study.
Haplogroup R-M124 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic markers L266, M124, P249, and P267, and is mainly found in South Asia and southern Central Asia.
Haplogroup R2 is a subgroup of Haplogroup R (M207):
- R-M207 (M207)
- R-M306 (M306)
- R-M173 (M173)
- R-M479 (M479)
- R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
- R-L295 (L295)
- R-L263 (L263)
- R-L1069 (L1069)
Description of the M479 SNP
| Common Name Marker
| YCC Haplogroup
| Nucleotide change
|| C to T|
| Amplicon size (bp) reference sequence
| Polymorphism position from 5' end
| Restriction enzyme variant
| RefSNP ID
| Primer forward 5'-3'
| Primer reverse 5'-3'
Y-DNA R-M207 subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
| Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
||A0-T [χ 3]|
|| A1 [χ 4]|
|| LT [χ 5]
||T [χ 6]
||NO [χ 7]
||K2b [χ 8]
|| K2e [χ 9]|
|| K2b1 [χ 10]
||S [χ 12]
- ↑ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
- ↑ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
- ↑ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
- ↑ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
- ↑ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
- ↑ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
- ↑ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
- ↑ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
- ↑ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
- ↑ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
- ↑ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
- ↑ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.