Brown in 2009
27 February 1971
Croydon, London, England
Derren Victor Brown (born 27 February 1971) is an English mentalist and illusionist. Since his television debut with Derren Brown: Mind Control in 2000, he has produced several other shows both for the stage, and for television in both series and specials. He has also written books for magicians as well as the general public.
Brown does not claim to possess any super-natural powers, indeed his acts are often designed to expose the methods of those who do, such as faith healers and mediums. He makes clear in his performances that all of his apparent abilities, which manifest on stage/screen as feats of memory, intuition, mind-reading and control of other objects/people, are achieved through a variety of psychological means, such as hypnosis, suggestion, cold reading, misdirection, and showmanship, and in many cases he will often give detailed explanations of his specific methods during or after the performance. In some performances he also uses his techniques to explore issues of personality such as fears and motivation.
Brown was born in Croydon, London to Chris and Bob and has a brother nine years his junior. Brown was privately educated at Whitgift School in South Croydon (where his father coached swimming), and studied Law and German at the University of Bristol. While there, he attended a hypnotist show by Martin S Taylor, which inspired him to turn to illusion and hypnosis as a career. Whilst an undergraduate, he started working as a conjuror, performing the traditional skills of close-up magic in bars and restaurants. In 1992, he started performing stage shows at the University of Bristol under the stage name Darren V. Brown.
Brown cites magician and comedian Jerry Sadowitz, whom he met at the International Magic shop in Clerkenwell, London, as being instrumental in his rise to stardom. Sadowitz put him in touch with H&R publishers and Objective Productions, a production company founded by the television magician Andrew O'Connor. This gave him his breakthrough show, Mind Control, in 2000, and Brown went on to become their first award-winning product. After several further shows with Objective, Brown set up his own company Vaudeville Productions with former Objective executives Michael Vine, Andrew O’Connor and Paul Sandler, in order to produce his own shows as well as other projects with other performers, both new and established. Its first show was Brown's TV special, Pushed to the Edge.
|2000||Mind Control||3||27 December 2000 – 2002||Hour long specials|
|2003||Mind Control||6||March – April 2003||First full series|
|2004||Trick of the Mind (Series 1)||6||23 April – 28 May 2004|
|2005||Trick of the Mind (Series 2)||6||15 April – 20 May 2005|
|2006||Trick of the Mind (Series 3)||6||26 April - 30 May 2006|
|2007||Trick or Treat (Series 1)||6||13 April – 18 May 2007|
|2008||Trick or Treat (Series 2)||6||2 May – 6 June 2008|
|2009||The Events||5||September 2009||10 minute lottery prediction plus four 1 hour specials|
|2010||Derren Brown Investigates||3||10 May 2010 - 31 May 2010|
|2011||The Experiments||4||21 October 2011 -|
|2003||Russian Roulette||5 October 2003||Brown performs Russian roulette live, at an undisclosed location in Jersey|
|2004||Séance||31 May 2004||Brown hosts a séance at Elton Hall in east London with students of students from Roehampton University, claimed to be live, but later confirmed by Brown to have been recorded|
|2005||Messiah||7 January 2005||Brown travels to the United States and convinces five leading figures that he has powers in their particular field of expertise: Christian evangelism, alien abduction, psychic powers, New Age theories and contacting the dead.|
|The Gathering||29 May 2005||Brown performs memory tricks in-front of an invited audience at a secret location in London, revealed at the end of the programme via a trick based on a taxi-driver's route|
|2006||The Heist||4 January 2006||Under the guise of a motivational seminar, Brown uses conditioning over a period of two weeks to influence four members of the public to willingly choose to commit what they perceive to be an actual armed robbery of a security van|
|2008||The System||1 February 2008||Over several weeks, Brown convinces various members of the public that he has a fool-proof system for choosing the winner of horse-races and persuades them to bet increasingly large sums of money, to the point of convincing one of them to part with their life savings (the system is later revealed to be a confidence trick in which Brown had simply used different people to cover all possible scenarios)|
|2010||Hero At 30000 Feet||8 September 2010||With the help of family and friends, Brown transforms the self-confidence of member of the public Matt Galley through a series of staged incidents to the point where he willingly boards a plane (having been afraid of flying) and then takes the controls when he believes the pilot has been incapacitated (it is later revealed the landing phase was conducted as a simulation)|
|2011||Miracles for Sale||25 April 2011||Brown teaches an ordinary member of the British public the tricks of faith healers, to the point they can give a convincing performance to a group of church goers in Texas|
|2012||Apocalypse||26 October 2012 & 2 November 2012 (two part special)||With the help of friends and family, over several days and using a special set, Brown convinces ordinary member of the public Steven Brosnan that the world has ended in a meteor strike, in order to change his perception of his life|
|Fear and Faith||9 & 16 November 2012 (two part special)||In part 1, Brown uses the cover of a drug trial to convince various members of the public to overcome their fears using "Rumyodin" (your mind). In part 2, Brown convinces various people that they are having supernatural experiences, to the point of convincing an atheist they are having a religious experience|
|2013||The Great Art Robbery||13 December 2013||Brown convinces a group of old age pensioners to steal a painting owned by art collector Ivan Massow, while at the same time telling Massow the exact time and date it would be stolen (during an exhibition)|
|2016||Pushed to the Edge||12 January 2016||Over the course of one night, during the fictitious launch of a charity called 'Push', Brown is shown attempting to use social coercion to convince one member of the public, Chris Kingston, who doesn't know he's being manipulated or filmed, to push another person off a roof to their apparent death. Chris ultimately refuses the final request, but at the end of the show it is revealed the process was also performed on three other unwitting subjects, and they all did.|
|Year||Tour||No. of Shows||Dates||Notes|
|2004||Live||43||15 March - 16 May 2004|
|2005||Something Wicked This Way Comes||2005|
|2006||Something Wicked This Way Comes||44||21 March - 27 May 2006|
|2007||Mind Reader – An Evening of Wonders||42||29 April – 17 June 2007|
|2008||Mind Reader – An Evening of Wonders||72||26 February – 7 June 2008||Included West End run of 32 performances at the Garrick Theatre|
|2009||Enigma||73||17 April – 25 July 2009||Included West End run at the Adelphi Theatre|
|2010||Enigma||92||10 February – 25 June 2010|
Broadcast on television
- 29 December 2006 - Something Wicked This Way Comes
- 13 January 2009 - Mind Reader – An Evening of Wonders (performed 4 June 2008)
- 6 January 2011 - Enigma
- 18 September 2012 - Svengali
- 22 September 2014 - Infamous
- 10 October 2016 - Miracle
Brown has written four books on magic: Absolute Magic, Pure Effect, Tricks of the Mind, and Confessions of a Conjuror. The first two books he penned are intended solely for practitioners of magic and mentalism, whilst his books Tricks of the Mind and Confessions of a Conjuror are aimed at the general public.
Absolute Magic, subtitled A Model for Powerful Close-Up Performance, is not so much about magical methodology as about how magicians can make their performances magical; it is written in a variety of styles: sometimes humorous, sometimes serious. He warns against an act that conveys the feeling of "Here are some tricks I've bought" and urges magicians to make their performances experiential and memorable by involving the audience. In some respects a lot of what he says is evocative of the content of Darwin Ortiz's Strong Magic but his book expresses it in the context of his experiences, performance style and theories of how performance should be. (Out of print)
Pure Effect is a more traditional book of trickery and technique and offers an insight into some of the methods that Brown employs, and offers a starting point for development for the reader's own use. (Out of print)
Tricks of the Mind is Brown's first book intended for the general public. It is a wide-ranging book in which Brown reveals some of the techniques he uses in his performances, delves into the structure and psychology of magic and discusses hypnosis. He also applies his insight to the paranormal industry, looking at the structure of beliefs and how psychology can explain why people become 'true believers'. He also offers autobiographical stories about his own experiences as a former Christian, and discusses his scepticism about religion, allegedly 'psychic' phenomena and other supernatural belief systems.
Confessions of a Conjuror was published by Channel 4 Books in October 2010. (ISBN 978-1-905-02657-9)
Other productions and publications
Brown co-presented two web-based series for Channel 4; The Science of Scams and The Science of Attraction. In The Science of Scams, a number of videos were placed on YouTube purporting to show various kinds of paranormal phenomena such as ghosts, telekinesis and a tarot card reading. In a second series of videos, Brown and his co-presenter Kat Akingbade explained what was actually happening, exposing each as a specially created scam. The Science of Attraction was co-presented by Brown, Akingbade and Charlie McDonnell, the shows examined the physical and psychological factors that can influence our feelings of attraction to other people, especially those of the opposite sex. The series featured a number of experiments designed to show how these factors can be influenced.
Brown has recorded some audio extracts from Tricks of the Mind. In them he expounds on the three subjects essential to his performance—Magic, Memory, and Hypnosis. The extracts last around 40 minutes each, disclosing tips and techniques Brown uses in his acts (as well as day-to-day) and narrating the highlights of his book.
The Devil's Picturebook is a near 3-hour home-made video. The first half explains in detail some classic card routines from his earlier career as a conjurer, all of which rely on sleight of hand, misdirection and audience management. The second looks at psychological card routines and shows a distinct move towards mentalism, for which he is now known. It is an instructional video for aspiring magicians and not an entertainment piece. For this reason, it was available only to practitioners through a password-protected "magicians only" area of his website. The clue to the password tells you that the word itself begins with T and is a type of palming trick.
International Magic Presents: The Derren Brown Lecture is an 80-minute lecture DVD of close-up mentalism and subsequent discussion of various aspects of Brown's performance. Again, this product is not intended for general consumption but is directed at magicians and mentalists only.
In 2008, Brown provided caricatures for "The QI 'F' annual".
In 2009, a book, Portraits, was released containing a selection of Brown's paintings and bizarre caricatures of celebrities.
In 2010, Brown appeared in a special Comedy Gala for Channel four and Great Ormond Street Hospital. He appeared with Kevin Bishop, who played his jealous annoying twin 'Darren'.
Thorpe Park ride
Brown created a new dark ride at the Thorpe Park amusement park, which opened on 8 July 2016. "Derren Brown's Ghost Train" is set aboard an old train carriage in an abandoned warehouse. It is expected that the experience will last around 13 minutes and is Thorpe Park's most expensive ride experience.
Many of Brown's shows have generated controversy. In 2007, BBC News listed two of Brown's shows (Russian Roulette and Seance) in a list of examples of Channel 4's "legacy of controversy". In 2013, Brown said "Controversy has never interested me for its own sake. It's always been about doing stuff that feels dramatic."
Public complaints that Russian Roulette was distasteful, made light of suicide and promoted gun culture were ultimately rejected by the regulator the Broadcast Standards Commission, on the basis that the context (a post-watershed magic show) and warnings given were sufficient, plus the use of a 15-minute delay would have ensured no viewer would have seen the result of any mistake. The police had also warned that the show might inspire copycat acts.
Seance received 487 complaints to Channel 4 and 208 to OFCOM, making it the third most complained about show in history. Most were from church groups and came before transmission, i.e. before it was revealed that the attempt to contact the dead was a hoax. The show was ultimately cleared of any wrongdoing.
The GMB union criticised Heist on behalf of security workers, arguing it was "irresponsible and insensitive" in light of increased attacks on staff. Channel 4 responded by arguing that it was made "very clear that attempting any form of robbery was criminal behaviour."
An episode of Trick or Treat caused charity Cats Protection to complain and news reports to label Brown a "cat killer", after he appeared to convince someone to press a button even though they thought it would electrocute a kitten inside a metal box. Brown responded by arguing they had misunderstood the trick (the box wasn't wired up), and he "wasn’t glorifying cruelty to cats. People would have been hard-pressed to recreate the electrocution device at home even if they wanted to." Another episode which saw someone hypnotised into thinking they had been killed in a car crash after not wearing a seatbelt was criticised by a road safety charity, who alleged it trivialised the issue.
OFCOM received 11 complaints and began an investigation relating to the safety of a scene in Hero at 30,000 Feet, in which the subject was shown chained to a railway line in order to escape from an oncoming train.
Psychic Joe Power, the subject of episode 1 of Derren Brown Investigates ("The Man Who Contacts the Dead"), complained to OFCOM about being misled and treated unfairly, and that the programme "presented, disregarded or omitted material facts". He also alleged he had received threats from sceptics and had to move home because of it. OFCOM rejected his complaint on the basis that Powers had been fully apprised of the sceptical nature of the programme, and his actions had been presented fairly.
Several viewers complained that the subject of Apocalypse was an actor, with reports pointing to evidence that he had a link to a professional actors’ website on his Twitter page and that he looked like another actor in a noodle advert, which Brown initially dismissed as conspiracy theories and then attempted to debunk by identifying the actor in question.
Derren Brown made a brief cameo in Crooked House.
An interview with Brown was featured in Richard Dawkins' two-part documentary series The Enemies of Reason. Brown explained various psychological techniques used by purported psychics and spiritual mediums to manipulate their audiences. The most notable was cold reading, a technique about which Brown talked extensively in his book Tricks of the Mind. Some video footage was also used from Brown's TV special Messiah.
As part of Channel 4's 3D season, Brown presented Derren Brown's 3D Magic Spectacular. The show was not a new special from Brown, rather he was the presenter for a number of other magicians and clips that were shown. However, he did include one clip in which he found an object that had been hidden in the streets of Venice by a volunteer.
In January 2011, to celebrate ten years since his first television appearance, Channel 4 held a special Derren Brown Night. As well as re-showing The Heist (which won a recent poll of favourite specials) and one of his Enigma Live shows the channel screened a special documentary; Derren Brown: Behind The Mischief, a personal and candid film about Brown. The documentary included the story of how he met his co-writer (who was featured in Seance), his mother's feelings about his involvement in Russian Roulette, and an emotional visit back to his old school, university and the Bristol bars where he first began his close-up magic. Celebrities contributors included Matt Lucas, Jo Whiley, Stephen Merchant, and Simon Pegg.
In January 2013, Brown was featured in a Channel 4 Deal or No Deal special, where he appeared to have predicted all the correct boxes, to win the big jackpot of £250,000. This was filmed as part of the Channel 4 Mashup.
Brown uses a variety of methods to achieve his illusions including traditional magic/conjuring techniques, memory techniques, hypnosis, body language reading, cognitive psychology, cold reading and psychological, subliminal (specifically the use of PWA – "perception without awareness") and ideomotor suggestion.
In an interview in New Scientist in 2005, when asked how he "acquired his psychological skills", Brown says that he learnt skills as a hypnotist, which he was not sure how to apply until he started performing close-up magic. When asked whether he is able to detect lies, Brown claimed to be able to read subtle cues such as a micro-muscle movements that indicate to him if someone is lying. Concerning his apparent success at hypnotizing people, he stated that he can normally spot a suggestible type of person and chooses that person to be his participant. He believes that the presence of a television camera also increases suggestibility.
Several authors have claimed that Brown uses neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) in his act which "consists of a range of magical 'tricks', misdirection and, most intriguing, setting up audiences to provide the response that he wishes them to provide by using subtle subliminal cues in his conversation with them." In response to the accusation that he unfairly claims to be using NLP whenever he performs, Brown writes "The truth is I have never mentioned it outside of my book". Brown does have an off-stage curiosity about the system, and discusses it in the larger context of hypnotism and suggestion. In his book Tricks of the Mind, Brown mentions that he attended an NLP course with Richard Bandler, co-creator of NLP and mentor of Paul McKenna. He also describes the NLP concept of eye accessing cues as a technique of "limited use" in his book Pure Effect. The language patterns which he uses to suggest behaviours are very similar in style to those used by Richard Bandler and by the hypnotist from whom Bandler learnt his skill, Milton H. Erickson. Brown also mentions in Tricks of the Mind that NLP students were given a certificate after a four-day course, certifying them to practice NLP as a therapist. A year after Brown attended the class, he received a number of letters saying that he would receive another certificate, not for passing a test (as he discontinued practising NLP following the course), but for keeping in touch. After ignoring their request, he later received the new certificate for NLP in his mailbox, unsolicited.
Brown relies heavily on misdirection for his tricks, helped by the audience viewing him as having deep psychological insights. He relies on a wide array of techniques to prevent audiences from deducing the techniques he has used.
In a Daily Telegraph article published in 2003 Simon Singh criticised Brown's early TV appearances, arguing that he presented standard magic and mentalism effects—such as the classic ten-card poker deal trick—as genuine psychological manipulation. On Brown's television and live shows he often appears to show the audience how a particular effect was created—claiming to use techniques such as subliminal suggestion, hypnosis, and body language reading. Singh's suggestion is that these explanations are dishonest. Furthermore, Singh took exception to the programme's website being categorised under Channel 4's "Science" section. The mini-site was moved to "Entertainment" for later series.
In an October 2010 interview, Brown conceded that Singh may have had a point, explaining that at the start of his television career "I was overstating the case, overstating my skills. I thought there'll only be one show, there'll never be a repeat, so I might as well go for it." In his book Tricks of the Mind, Brown writes,
I am often dishonest in my techniques, but always honest about my dishonesty. As I say in each show, 'I mix magic, suggestion, psychology, misdirection and showmanship'. I happily admit cheating, as it's all part of the game. I hope some of the fun for the viewer comes from not knowing what's real and what isn't. I am an entertainer first and foremost, and I am careful not to cross any moral line that would take me into manipulating people's real-life decisions or belief systems.
Brown claims to never use actors or "stooges" in his work without informing the viewers. In Tricks of the Mind, Brown writes that to use such a ploy is "artistically repugnant and simply unnecessary"; furthermore, he "would not want any participant to watch the TV show when it airs and see a different or radically re-edited version of what he understood to have happened".
Brown came out as gay in 2007, and is in a long term relationship with a designer. He came out late in life—his parents were not practicising Christians, but they sent him to Bible classes from age 5, believing it was the right thing to do. In an effort to deal with issues of self-esteem and sexuality, Brown became a committed Evangelical Christian in his teens in order to present a confident, asexual, character. After he came to the conclusion that his belief in Christianity had no basis, by his twenties he had become a committed atheist, and he instead turned to the character of the eccentric, caped magician to fulfill the role.
Since 2004, Brown has been the patron of the registered charity the Parrot Zoo Trust in Friskney, Lincolnshire. In an interview with LeftLion magazine, he said, "I'm a big fan of parrots – I think they're fascinating creatures. Many of them live for longer than us humans and it's interesting to me the way they learn to mimic human voices even though they don't really comprehend what they're saying."
Awards and nominations
|2000||Television series||Mind Control||Rose d'Or for Light Entertainment||Won Silver Rose|
|2006||Stage show||Something Wicked This Way Comes||Laurence Olivier Award for Best Entertainment||Won|
|2010||Stage show||Enigma||Laurence Olivier Award for Best Entertainment||Nominated|
|2011||Television series||The Experiments||BAFTA award for best entertainment show||Won|
|2012||Stage show||Svengali||Laurence Olivier Award for Best Entertainment||Won|
|Derren Brown: Inside Your Mind||6 October 2003 (re-released 16 April 2007)||Footage and some unused footage from Brown's Mind Control series|
|Trick of the Mind: Series 1||25 April 2005||First series of the Channel 4 show Trick of the Mind|
|Trick of the Mind: Series 2||27 March 2006||Second series of the Channel 4 show Trick of the Mind|
|Something Wicked This Way Comes||5 May 2008||DVD release of the stage show with the same name, including segments not shown on Channel 4|
|Derren Brown: The Specials||3 November 2008||Collection of four of Derren Brown's one-off television specials: "The Heist", "The System", "Séance" and "Russian Roulette"|
|Derren Brown: An Evening Of Wonders||18 May 2009||DVD release of the stage show with the same name|
|Derren Brown: Enigma||17 January 2011||DVD release of the stage show with the same name|
|Derren Brown: Live Collection||17 January 2011||Collection of three of Brown's stage shows: Something Wicked This Way Comes, An Evening Of Wonders and Enigma|
|Derren Brown: The Experiments||15 October 2011||Collection of four of Derren Brown's Experiments: "The Assassin", "The Gameshow", "The Guilt Trip" and "The Secret of Luck"|
|Derren Brown: Svengali||1 April 2013||DVD release of the stage show with the same name|
|Derren Brown: Infamous||15 December 2014||DVD release of the stage show with the same name|
- "5 Things you might not know about Derren Brown". derrenbrown.co.uk. Derren Brown. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- ltd, company check. "VAUDEVILLE PRODUCTIONS LTD. Free and instant access to a company's group structure, parents and subsidiaries. Online instantly". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- 10 things you need to know about the magician Daily Mirror. Retrieved 25 March 2012
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- "Simply magic at Rebecca Hossack Gallery - Illusionist Derren Brown transfers parents to canvas - West End Extra". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
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- The Guardian (8 December 2013). "Andrew Newman: 'There are lots of challenges with Derren Brown'".
- Broadcast (14 October 2015). "Derren Brown unveils Vaudeville Productions".
- C21 Media (5 November 2015). "C4 pulls in Push, reaches Eden".
- Derren Brown: Pushed to the Edge, Radio Times
- "The Devil's Picturebook". Derren Brown. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Medium Rare the Short Film". Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- "Interview with Mark Gatiss about Crooked House". BBC. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- "Derren Browns Ghost Train". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Pryor, Fiona (24 June 2008). "Inside the mind of Derren Brown". BBC News.
- BBC News (6 June 2007). "Channel 4's legacy of controversy".
- The Independent (18 February 2013). "Derren Brown: for my next trick I will make a straight man gay".
- BBC News (4 December 2003). "TV gun stunt complaints rejected".
- BBC News (3 June 2004). "Hundreds protest at TV 'seance'".
- BBC News (6 January 2006). "Union attacks illusionist's Heist".
- Digital Spy (21 May 2008). "Brown defends cat electrocution stunt".
- Digital Spy (10 March 2007). "Derren Brown stunt criticised by charity".
- BBC News (15 September 2010). "Derren Brown train stunt investigated by Ofcom".
- Digital Spy (7 February 2011). "Derren Brown psychic complaint dismissed".
- BBC News (5 August 2010). "Psychic Joe Power cut dead by Edinburgh Fringe spirit".
- Metro (30 October 2012). "Derren Brown releases video 'proving' Apocalypse victim isn't actor".
- "Programme Information; BBC Network TV Weeks 52/53; BBC Four". BBC. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- Kelly, Emma (2 January 2014). "Sherlock death twist revealed in confusing season opener featuring Derren Brown". Daily Star. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "The Channel 4 Mash Up".
- "The Day of the Doctor: 10 things we learned". The Guardian. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- "Derren Brown Interview — Richard Dawkins". Youtube.com. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- "Channel 4 plans 3D shows, The Queen, Derren Brown – ''macworld.co.uk''". Macworld.co.uk. 24 August 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "The Events – ''DerrenBrown.co.uk''". Derrenbrown.co.uk. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- Clare Wilson. "The great pretender", New Scientist. London: 30 July – 5 August 2005. Vol. 187, Iss. 2510; p. 36, 2 pages
- John Ozimek. Journal of Database marketing & Customer Strategy Management. London: Apr 2007. Vol. 14, Iss. 3; p. 161, 3 pages
- Brown, Derren (2006). Tricks of the Mind. London: Channel 4. ISBN 978-1-905026-26-5.
- "Does NLP work? Is it the basis of Derren Brown's "mind control" act?". The Straight Dope. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Brown, Derren (2000). "Pure Effect": 108.
- Derren Brown, Tricks of the Mind, Transworld Publishers, 2006, ISBN 978-1-905026-38-8 Specifically Part Four: Hypnosis and Suggestibility, Section Neuro Linguistic Programming, Sub section, The eyes have it (some of the time)
- Hill, Annette (2010). Paranormal media : audiences, spirits, and magic in popular culture (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 142–149. ISBN 0415544629.
- Singh, Simon (10 June 2003). "I'll bet £1,000 that Derren can't read my mind". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
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- "Interview – The Times". Derren Brown. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
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- 'The Enemies of Reason', Channel 4
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- "Derren Brown: it's a kind of magic". The Guardian. 19 October 2012.
- "Our Patron". The Parrot Zoo. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- Wilson, Jared (1 April 2012). "He's Not The Messiah, He's a Very Naughty Boy". LeftLion. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
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