Cycling in the Netherlands

Everyday cycling in the Netherlands (Amsterdam).

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands, with 31.2% of the people listing the bike as their main mode of transport for daily activities (as opposed to the car by 48.5% and public transport by 11%).[1][2] Cycling has a modal share of 27% of all trips (urban and rural) nationwide.[3] In cities this is even higher, such as Amsterdam which has 38%,[4] though the smaller Dutch cities well exceed that: for instance Zwolle (pop. ~123,000) has 46%[5] and the university town of Groningen (pop. ~198,000) has 31%.[6][7] This high modal share for bicycle travel is enabled by excellent cycling infrastructure such as cycle paths, cycle tracks, protected intersections, ubiquitous bicycle parking and by making cycling routes shorter, quicker and more direct than car routes.

In the countryside, a growing number of inter-city bicycle paths connect the Netherlands' villages, towns and cities: some of these paths are part of the Dutch National Cycle Network, a network of routes for bicycle tourism which reaches all corners of the nation.[8]


A typical Dutch bike path, Rotterdam.

Cycling became popular in the Netherlands a little later than it did in the United States and Britain who experienced their bike booms in the 1880s, but by the 1890s the Dutch were already building dedicated paths for cyclists.[9] By 1911, the Dutch owned more bicycles per capita than any other country in Europe.[9] After World War II, however, much like it had in other developed nations, the privately owned motor car became more affordable and therefore more ubiquitous and the bicycle started to be squeezed out. Even so, the number of Dutch people cycling was very high compared to other European nations.[9]

The trend away from the bicycle and towards motorised transport only began to be slowed in the 1970s when Dutch people took to the streets to protest against the high number of child deaths on the roads: in some cases over 500 children were killed in car accidents in the Netherlands in a single year.[10] This protest movement came to be known as the Stop de Kindermoord (literally "Stop the Child Murder" in Dutch).[10] The success of this movement — along with other factors, such as the oil shortages of 1973–74[11] — turned Dutch government policy around and the country began to restrict motor vehicles in its towns and cities and direct its focus on growth towards other forms of transport, with the bicycle being seen as critical in making Dutch streets safer and towns and cities more people-friendly and liveable.

Besides the history and social movements, there is no single reason as to why cycling remains so popular in the Netherlands: many bicycle friendly factors reinforce each other:

These factors together far outweigh the negative factors of wet and windy weather, strong headwinds due to the flat terrain, and frequent bicycle thefts. Nearly a third of all journeys made in the Netherlands are made by bicycle. Even the over 65 age group make nearly a quarter of their journeys by bicycle — though, among this age group, electric bikes are very popular. In some cities over half of all journeys are made by bicycle.[7]

By 2012 cycling had grown tremendously in popularity. In Amsterdam alone, 490,000 fietsers (cyclists) took to the road to cycle 2 million kilometres every day according to statistics of the city council. This has caused some problems as, despite 35,000 kilometers of bicycle paths, the country's 18 million bicycles (1.3 per citizen old enough to ride) sometimes clog some Dutch cities' busiest streets. This is being addressed by building even more bike lanes to tackle a problem many other cities in the world would envy, that of bicycle traffic congestion.

In 2012, the Dutch Fietsersbond (Cyclists' Union) said that a quarter of all deadly crashes in the Netherlands involve cyclists.[18] Research in 2013 showed that 60% of fatal cycling accidents took place at junctions and in two out of five of those accidents, cyclists were not given priority by the driver. From 2007 to 2012, the number of fatal accidents decreased in the Netherlands from 850 to 600, while the number of cycling fatalities remained roughly constant.[19] In 2015, cycling deaths made up 30% of road deaths in the Netherlands, 185 out of 621.[20]


Many roads have one or two separate cycleways along them, or cycle lanes marked on the road. Cycling on the main carriageway is not permitted on roads where adjacent bike paths or cycle tracks exist so, where they exist, the use of such facilities is legally compulsory.[21] On other roads and streets, bicycle and motor vehicles share the same road-space, but these are usually roads with a low speed limit. The surface quality of these bike lanes are good and the routing tends to be direct with gentle turns making it possible to cycle at good speeds for considerable distances. Cycleways come with their own sets of rules and systems - including traffic signals/lights, tunnels and lanes.

Tunnels and bridges may or may not be accessible for cycling; if pedal cycles are prohibited, there is usually a separate facility. For example, the Western Scheldt Tunnel is not accessible for pedestrians, cyclists or moped riders. They have to use the ferry at another location, or take the bus through the tunnel. Unlike the vast majority of bus services in the Netherlands, three services that cross this tunnel carry bicycles and mopeds.[22] There is a fee for this service and reservation is recommended.

Pedestrians use the pavement where one is available, otherwise they use the same position on the road as the cyclists: on the cycleway or lane if available, otherwise on the road (but in the latter case pedestrians preferably walk on the left, while cyclists go on the right). Roads and tunnels accessible for cyclists are also accessible for pedestrians. Most pedestrian paths are available to cyclists who dismount and walk the bike.

Separate bike paths, parallel to the roadway

A typical bi-directional cycle path design (middle, in red), a roadway on the right with a green verge in between. There is a footpath (in grey) to the bike path's left.

When enough space is available, larger roads are fitted with a parallel fietspad (bike path) that is physically separated — for example by means of a verge, hedge, or parking lane — from the roadway. In most cases, these bike paths are also physically separated from an adjacent footpath.

Where protected bike paths exist, their use is in most cases obligatory for cyclists. Mopeds, mofas and the like are allowed and obliged to use them when their maximum speed is no more than 25 km/h (with a blue license plate) (though this has become controversial[23]). When the maximum speed is 45 km/h (yellow license plate), mopeds are only allowed to use the cycle paths if that is indicated (mostly outside of the built-up area). Motorists are not allowed on bike paths, and to enforce this the entry of cars is often made physically impossible by using obstacles. In any case, a single-directional bike path is usually too narrow for cars to travel on.

Bi-directional bike paths on one side of the road are common in towns as well as in the countryside: they are divided into two lanes, similar to roads, by a dashed line. Occasionally bi-directional cycle ways exist on both sides of the road; this reduces the number of times cyclists have to cross the road.

The color of the pavement on a bike lane or path may vary, though red is the standard color to identify bike paths and on-road bike lanes in the Netherlands: either red asphalt or brickwork is used to visually distinguish cycle ways from car lanes and footpaths. Standard black asphalt is also commonly used and some older cycle paths are made of the square tiles commonly used for sidewalks.

On-road bike lanes

Fietsstrook type cycle lanes (red) that may be used by motorists as well when other cars approach from the opposite direction. The cars must use them safely, however, and not crowd out the cyclists.

On-road bike lanes in the Netherlands are marked by either a dashed line or a solid line: lanes marked by a dashed line may be used by motorists provided that they do not impede cyclists, while those marked with a solid line may not be used by motorists. Solid lines are interrupted on crossings to allow motorists to enter or leave the road. Car parking is never allowed in either type of lane.

Bike lanes are usually surfaced with red or black asphalt. The red colour has no legal meaning, it is there for visibility; the on-road bike lane is delineated by the solid or dashed line by which it is separated from the roadway.

National guidelines advise a minimum width of 1.25 m for cycle lanes.

When a cycle lane is present on a road, cyclists are obliged to use it. Since 15 December 1999 mopeds are not allowed on cycle lanes.

"Fietsstraat" road sign indicates priority for cyclists.

Fietsstraat (bike street)

A fietsstraat (bike street) where bicycles are the main form of transport and cars are considered "guests".

A fietsstraat (bike street) is a road where bicycles are considered to be the primary and preferred form of transport and where cars and other motorised vehicles are allowed "as guests". There are four different types of fietsstraat but they are all required to have a speed limit of 30 km/h or less and are usually coloured in the same red asphalt as bike paths.[24]

Fietsstraat streets exist mostly in residential areas where low-traffic roads exist anyway. A fietsstraat was in most cases originally a road that had low-traffic volumes beforehand and was therefore easily converted. They are an important type of infrastructure which makes Dutch towns and cities safer for cyclists. They can also be used for route separation to enable cyclists to avoid busier roads and have direct routes into and through towns.

The unravelling of modes

In Dutch towns and cities, many bike-only routes are not alongside the roadway, nor do they run close-by and parallel to major car routes: rather, cycle routes are often completely separate from motor vehicle routes. In many cases, dedicated bike routes are far more direct than the local car routes are to common destinations, such as town centres.[25] This complete separation of bicycle routes from motor vehicle routes is called the unravelling of modes and is an important feature of modern Dutch urban design and traffic management.[25][26]

For instance, many Dutch towns and cities have a "soft" green core that is only accessible to cyclists and pedestrians. Therefore, while drivers wishing to cross the town may have to take a lengthy detour via a ring road, cyclists can take a direct route through the town centre.

Other cycle routes work similarly. On a small scale, short sections of cycle path can provide a short cut between streets that cars cannot take, while on a larger scale entire streets are sometimes converted to cycle paths to provide more room for cyclists and discourage the use of motorized vehicles.

Free-running cycle paths also exist for recreational purposes, in parks and in the countryside. These are usually bidirectional.


On busy and important routes, cycling facilities in the countryside are similar to those in the cities. Cycle paths are made where possible, and cycle lanes otherwise. If the available space is too limited even for a cycle lane, for example when a road passes through a village, speed-reducing measures are usually taken to ensure that the difference in speed between cyclists and motorists is tolerable.

Highways and "provincial roads" (main roads for which a province is responsible), are usually fitted with separate cycle paths. Motorways, on the other hand, rarely have cycling facilities associated with them. If a cycle path is bundled with a motorway it usually lies at a relatively large distance from the road, outside the traffic barriers and noise barriers.

Apart from these utility paths and lanes, many recreational paths are available in the countryside. Their pavement varies from gravel through asphalt. Crushed seashells are a popular variant.

Snelfietsroutes (Fast Bike Routes)

Fietssnelweg (cycle highway) F35 in Enschede.

A bicycle-only route intended for cycling longer distances for practical reasons such as commuting or for sport and exercise can either be called a snelfietsroute (fast bike route) or a fietssnelweg (cycle highway).[27] Some characteristics of these cycling routes mentioned by governments (both national and local) and traffic experts are: bi-directional paths with recommended uni-directional lane widths of 2 metres and minimum widths of 1.5 metres; very level and straight stretches (i.e. few ups and downs, curves or turns); the absence of traffic lights and level crossings with motorised traffic; and superior pavement quality.[28]

Cycling interest groups and national and local governments advocate such routes as being a solution for the further reduction of vehicular traffic congestion: this is because, as cyclists can achieve higher average speeds on these routes than on the usual types of cycling infrastructure, so cyclists are better able to compete with the car for longer commutes on them.

As of 2012, cycle highways currently being constructed include one between Rotterdam and Delft, and one between Nijmegen and Arnhem. Most fast-cycling routes/cycle highway projects are not entirely purpose-built, but consist of upgrading existing infrastructure and adding missing links between them.


Some roundabouts have cyclist lanes around them, with signposts directing the cyclist to a destination. Traffic on roundabouts in the Netherlands usually has priority over entering traffic, and when a cycle lane is bundled with it this priority also applies to the cyclists. This means that cars have to give priority to bicycles both when entering and exiting the roundabout.

Other roundabouts have separate cycle paths around them. Signs indicate whether the cycle path or the crossing road has priority. Many authorities give priority to the crossing roads, as this is thought to be safer. For fairness, others retain the priority that the cyclists would have had if they had not been using a separate cycle path (which they are obliged to use).

A very busy roundabout in Eindhoven uses tunnels and an interior roundabout for cyclists to keep the two traffic streams completely apart.

The Hovenring

The Hovenring at night
Main article: Hovenring

The Hovenring is an architectural first for bicycle infrastructure. Opening on 29 June 2012, it is an elevated circular suspension bridge and bicycle-only roundabout built in between the localities of Eindhoven, Veldhoven and Meerhoven (thus the name, being Dutch for "Ring of the 'Hovens'") in the province of North Brabant. Built over a large and busy road intersection, where before its construction cyclists had to cross busy roads, it is the first suspended bicycle roundabout in the world.[29][30]

Crossing rivers and motorways

Ferry across the IJ near Amsterdam Central Station.

To protect cyclists from motorised traffic when they need to cross motorways and other busy roads, dedicated cycling bridges and tunnels for cyclists are built. Such facilities are often shared with pedestrians.

The small waterways such as canals, which abound especially throughout western Holland, will often have dedicated bridges for cyclists or ones that they share with pedestrians. However, to cross large waterways, cycle paths are often situated alongside roads (for instance the Hollandse Brug) or sometimes railroads (for example the Nijmegen railway bridge). Long road tunnels are rarely open to cyclists.

When roads and railroads are too far away, ferries often provide an alternative in the Netherlands. In many cases, ferries operate exclusively or primarily for cyclists and to a lesser extent for pedestrians.

Traffic signals

Because of their constant use, cycleways are complete with their own system of traffic signals. These are present at junctions, one set for motorised vehicles and a visually smaller set for cyclists. Sometimes this is similar to a pelican crossing, where the cyclists wait to cross the junction. These lights come in two forms - firstly the miniature version of the vehicle lights and secondly a regular sized signal with bicycle-shaped cutouts.

In many locations more direct cycle routes exist which bypass traffic signals, allowing cyclists to make more efficient journeys than motorists.

Occasionally, cyclists are explicitly allowed to pass a red traffic light if they make a right turn on an intersection. They are also allowed to ignore a red light if they go through the top of a T junction on a cycle path, as there is never interaction between motorists and cyclists, and cyclists can negotiate easily with other cyclists and pedestrians.[31]


Directional signpost for cyclists.
The "mushroom" type of signpost.

Signposts take on the form of road signs, with directions stating the distances to nearby cities and towns. Signposts come in two different forms: the common directional signpost which is a miniature version of the vehicle signs and a mushroom-shaped direction post. The second form is used in the countryside where it is thought to blend in better with its surroundings. Sometimes it can be hard to notice in long grass.

In contrast to the signposts for traffic in general, which feature white lettering on a blue background, the signposts for cyclists have red or green lettering on a white background. Red is used for the usual route and green for more scenic routes where mopeds are not allowed.[32] The mushroom-style signpost can also have black lettering on a white background (as it is obvious that it is not meant for motorists). A newer style of "mushroom" has red lettering.

When a general (white on blue) signpost is not applicable for cyclists because it relies on a motorway, this is indicated with a small car sign or a motorway sign behind the name of the destination. In such cases, a separate signpost for cyclists is usually nearby.

Most road signs for cyclists that are used in the Netherlands are universal. However, some are specific to the country and may even include some Dutch text, e.g. fietspad (cycle path), (brom)fietsers oversteken (cyclists and moped riders must cross the road), uitgezondered fietsers (except for cyclists) or rechtsaf fietsers vrij (turning right free for cyclists).[33]


Bicycle parking in Utrecht

By policy in the Netherlands, bicycle parking is supposed to be provided next to every shop. Bicycle stands are common around the Netherlands, an alternative to chaining the bike to a post. In most, the front wheel of the bicycle rests on the stand. As bike theft is very common in the Netherlands, cyclists are advised to lock their bicycle with a built-in lock and attach a chain from the bike frame to the stand.

There are many bicycle parking stations, some of which hold many thousands of bicycles. Every railway station has a cycle park attached and most also offer watched cycle parking for a nominal fee. These types of bicycle parking stations also exist in other places around most cities, for example, there are 20 watched bicycle parking stations situated in the city of Groningen (population ~198,000).

Most city councils enforce the parking of bicycles in their jurisdictions by regularly removing any bicycles that are not placed in the bike stands. The locks are cut and for the owner to reclaim their bicycle they must pay a fine of around €25. Cyclist journeys are made more convenient by such actions as it prevents sidewalks being littered with bikes.

Bike rental

Bikes for the whole family are readily available for rent across the country and most large towns have bike shops with all the necessary equipment and repair services.[34] All cities possess multiple bike stands, mainly at the supermarkets and other commonly used shops. Bikes should also come with a lock so as to keep the bike from being stolen. A national scheme, Cycleswap, supports small businesses privately renting bicycles out for short-term use.[35]


An OV-fiets bike share bike.

OV-fiets is a nationwide bicycle sharing system run by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), or Dutch Railways. OV-fiets (which literally means "public transport bike") bike stations can be found mainly at NS train stations, but also at light rail stops and metro stations, right across the Netherlands. There are over 6000 bikes in 250 locations.[36] Membership to the OV-fiets scheme is required and costs €10 per year — bikes can be accessed using the normal NS public transport card — and 24-hour rental costs €3.15.[37]

The OV-fiets program, which started on a small scale in 2003, has enjoyed a steadily increasing popularity with over 1 million rides registered in 2011. The nature of the OV-fiets bike sharing program differs somewhat from that of similar schemes in other countries partly because the already high bike ownership of the population: its usage is highly integrated with the public transport network.

Bicycle touring

Sign for national cycle route LF 8a under the general cycle track sign
Sign for route LF 12a a.k.a. the Maas- en Vesting route

For bicycle touring, all Dutch cities can be accessed on the dedicated cycling routes of either the Dutch National Cycle Network — the (currently) 26 so-called LF-routes — or on the many other regional cycle paths. An average cyclist can typically expect to cover between 15 and 18 kilometres, on average, in an hour by bike throughout most areas of the Netherlands.

Maps of the LF-routes and other routes and are widely available and come in two forms:

There are also comprehensive maps and route planning tools available online or in smartphone and tablet apps.

Though the LF-route network is the national cycling route network of the Netherlands, some of its routes extend into the neighbouring countries of Belgium and Germany; the LF1 even extends all the way down the North Sea coast to Boulogne-sur-Mer in France.

For cyclists who don't want to explore the Netherlands on their own, there are different tour operators that offer a wide variety of organised cycling holidays.

Transporting bicycles

It is possible to take bicycles with you on trains, aircraft and ferries. Buses, however, will not carry them.


Bicycles may be carried on trains under certain conditions. Folding bicycles can be taken more easily than other types as regular bicycles must be placed in designated areas. Taking a folded bicycle inside a train is free, but for unfolded bicycles and regular ones a special ticket is required. As of 2016, these tickets cost €6.10 per bicycle and are valid for a whole day. In all trains it is prohibited to carry normal size and (partly) unfolded bikes during peak hours, though this restriction does not apply in the summer in July and August when bikes can be carried for free at any time. All bicycles are allowed, even a recumbent or a tandem. However, it is prohibited to take a tricycle or a bicycle trailer on trains.[38][39]

Travellers are expected to place their bicycles in the designated areas: blue stickers on or near the doors indicate where they are.


Ferries are commonplace in the Netherlands for crossing both rivers and canals, including numerous foot ferries that operate especially for cyclists and foot passengers saving them from making long detours. There are ferries as well as to the islands in the North (Texel, Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland and Schiermonnikoog). It is important to know where ferries are and when they run.[40]

Some ferries (such as those to Texel,[41] Vlieland, Terschelling,[42] Ameland[43] and Schiermonnikoog[44]) impose an extra charge for bicycles, while others (such as those across the IJ in Amsterdam) carry bicycles for free.[45]

By air

It is possible to take bicycles by air, but the airline's procedures must be followed to pack the bicycle and possibly dismantle it. There may also be extra fees as the bicycle will count as luggage. Again, travelling with a foldable bike is easier.

The Fietsstad (Bicycle City) awards

Every few years, a jury from the Dutch Fietsersbond (Cyclists' Union) hands out awards for the country's top Fietsstad (Bicycle City) from the (usually around a half a dozen or so) cities that choose to enter the competition. The main criteria for winning is not which city has the best overall cycling environment but rather which city is already great for cycling but has made a great effort to improve cycling in their city even further.[46] Furthermore, each year of the awards has its own unique theme that the jury use to decide the winner.

As of 2014 the cities that have been elected Fietsstad are:[47][48][49]

Year Theme Winner
2000   Veenendaal
2002   Groningen
2008 Veilig en fietsvriendelijk (Safe and bicycle friendly) Houten
2011 Veilige schoolomgeving (Safe school environment) 's-Hertogenbosch
2014 Fietsen zonder hindernissen (Cycling without obstacles) Zwolle[50]
2016 Bikenomics Nijmegen[51]

After a new city has been voted by the Fietsersbond jury as the Netherlands' current "best" Fietsstad, the previous winners still remain a Fietsstad for the year that they won it (e.g. "Houten Fietsstad 2008") but they then are no longer considered by the jury to be the Netherlands' "best" Bicycle City, even though having won it previously they often do not re-enter the next few competitions.[52]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cycling in the Netherlands.


  1. "Why is cycling so popular in the Netherlands?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014.
  2. Future of Transport report (PDF) (Report). European Commission. March 2011. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  3. "Cycling in the Netherlands" (PDF) (Press release). The Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. Fietsberaad (Expertise Centre for Cycling Policy). 2009. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
  4. "Cycling facts and figures". I amsterdam website. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  5. "Cycling and urban qualities" (PDF). MOBILE 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  6. Jay Walljasper. "How to Make Biking Mainstream: Lessons from the Dutch". Yes! Magazine. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  7. 1 2 @urban_future (2014-08-14). "Cycling Mode Share Data for 700 Cities". City Clock Magazine. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  8. "The Netherlands, a great destination for cycling holidays". Nederland Fietsland website. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  9. 1 2 3 Carlton Reid (8 December 2012). "Why is cycling popular in the Netherlands: infrastructure or 100+ years of history?". Roads Were Not Built For Cars website. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  10. 1 2 Mark Wagenbuur (27 November 2013). "How Child Road Deaths Changed the Netherlands". BBC World Service - Witness programme. BBC World Service. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  11. "Car Free Sundays, a 40 year anniversary". BicycleDutch website. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Mark Wagenbuur (21 February 2013). "Strict liability in the Netherlands". BicycleDutch website. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  13. "Why is cycling so popular in the Netherlands?". BBC News website. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  14. "Fietsersbond onderzoekt: helpt de helm? (The Dutch Cyclists' Union asks: does the helmet help?)" (in Dutch). Dutch Fietsersbond (Cyclists' Union). Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  15. 1 2 Mark Wagenbuur (19 April 2010). "Bicycle Training in the Netherlands". BicycleDutch blog. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  16. 1 2 Mark Wagenbuur (5 December 2013). "Arriving at school by bicycle". Bicycle Dutch blog. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  17. David Hembrow (5 September 2013). "The school run in Assen". A View from the Cycle Path blog. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  18. Hennop, Jan (November 10, 2012). "Joyride no more as Dutch face cycle jam". Sydney Morning Herald. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  19. "Fewer road deaths but no change in fatal accidents for cyclists". Dutch News. November 12, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  20. Institute of Road Safety Research (June 2016). "Road deaths in the Netherlands" (PDF).
  21. " - Wet- en regelgeving - Reglement verkeersregels en verkeerstekens 1990 (RVV 1990) - BWBR0004825".
  22. Westerscheldetunnel bus service on the bus company's website.
  23. Mark Wagenbuur (23 February 2013). "The Moped Menace in the Netherlands". BicycleDutch website. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  24. "Don't misunderstand the Fietsstraat". As Easy As Riding A Bike blog. June 12, 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  25. 1 2 David Hembrow (2 July 2012). "Unravelling of modes". A View from the Cycle Path blog. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  26. Mark Wagenbuur (29 November 2012). "Unravelling modes". BicycleDutch blog. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  27. "Fietssnelwegen" (in Dutch). Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  28. "Fietssnelweg F35" (in Dutch). 22 November 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  29. Jan de Vries (11 January 2012). "Fietsrotonde Hovenring Eindhoven afgesloten: kabels op knappen". Omroep Brabant (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  30. John Tarantino. "Bike The Netherlands". The Environmental Blog. Retrieved 2012-10-15.
  31. "Cycling past red lights in the Netherlands". YouTube. 24 October 2012.
  32. "Signposts for cyclists". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  33. "Road signs for cyclists". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  34. "Bicycle rental". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  35. , J. Schutijser., (2015). Nieuwste tak deeleconomie: verhuur je fiets. NOS news broadcast,
  36. "OV-fiets in het kort - Wat is OV-fiets?". OV-fiets website (in Dutch). Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  37. David Hembrow (17 March 2011). "Bike share the Dutch way". A View from the Cycle Path blog. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  38. "Getting around Holland by rail". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  40. "Getting around Holland by ferry". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  41. "Home".
  42. Rederij Doeksen Information on the ferry service to Vlieland and Terschelling
  43. Wagenborg passagiersdiensten Rates for the ferry service to Ameland
  44. Wagenborg passagiersdiensten Rates for the ferry service to Schiermonnikoog
  45. Information on Amsterdam ferries on a municipal website
  46. "Enschede, nominee for best cycling city". 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. From comment: "Readers should be aware that “best cycling city” is awarded as a result of a subjective process by a campaigning organisation. It is also limited by who enters. The result is a reflection of who of those cities which entered is trying hardest rather than of which city has the best overall results."
  47. "Archief Fietsstad | Fietsstad 2014". Fietsersbond website (in Dutch). October 31, 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  48. Elzi Lewis (30 July 2013). "Fietsstad 2014 - which Dutch cycling city is best?". IamExpat website. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  49. "Over de verkiezing | Fietsstad 2014". Fietsstad at the Fietsersbond website. Fietsersbond. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  50. "Zwolle is bicycle city of the year". website. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  51. "Gemeente Nijmegen uitgeroepen tot Fietsstad 2016" (in Dutch). Fietsersbond. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  52. Mark Wagenbuur (26 July 2013). "Best Cycle City of the Netherlands 2014 competitors". BicycleDutch website. Retrieved 4 December 2013.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.