Comparison of layout engines (XHTML)

The following tables compare XHTML compatibility and support for a number of layout engines. Please see the individual products' articles for further information. Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.

Only XHTML 1.1 is considered. XHTML 1.1 is necessarily XHTML 1.0 Strict with more elements and attributes deprecated. XHTML 2.0 was a working draft with no layout engine support, but work on it was abandoned[1] in 2009 in favor of work on HTML5 and XHTML5. XHTML 1.0 and HTML 4 (both served with text/html) are covered in comparison of layout engines (HTML). The comparison of XML capabilities are covered in comparison of layout engines (XML).

Version number, if possible, is provided for feature that is fully supported. Proprietary extensions are not included.

Explanation of the tables

Engine nomenclature

Rather than the names of web browsers and HTML to PDF converters, the names of the underlying engines are used. Some of the software and online converters that use the various engines are listed below.

Layout engine Release version Preview version Used by
Amaya 11.4.7[2] N/A No longer developed; Amaya
Blink 537.36 source code[note 1] Chromium/Chrome (28+), Opera (15+), Sleipnir, Vivaldi, Yandex, Liebao and Samsung Browser .
EdgeHTML 13.10586 [3] N/A Microsoft Edge, Universal Windows Platform (UWP) JavaScript apps
Standard 50.0.2 / November 30, 2016 (2016-11-30)[4]
ESR 45.5.1 / November 30, 2016 (2016-11-30)[5]
Beta 51.0beta / November 16, 2016 (2016-11-16)[6][7] semiweekly release
Developer Edition 52.0a2 / November 18, 2016 (2016-11-18)[8][9] daily release
Nightly 53.0a1 / November 14, 2016 (2016-11-14)[10][11] daily release
All Mozilla software, including Firefox; SeaMonkey and Galeon; Camino; K-Meleon; Flock (up to 2.x); Debian IceWeasel; GNU IceCat (formerly GNU IceWeasel); Cyberfox; Icedove, Iceape and Iceowl; Firefox for mobile ("Fennec"). Also used by the Maple platform in 2010 and 2011 Samsung "SmartTV" devices which are based on the build used in Firefox 2.5. The Nokia Asha platform also uses Gecko for web apps rendering.
Goanna 27.0.2 (December 2, 2016 (2016-12-02)[12]) [±] 27 public beta 3 (October 27, 2016 (2016-10-27)[13]) [±] Pale Moon and FossaMail
KHTML 4.12.3[14] N/A Konqueror[note 2]
Martha ? ? PDFreactor, Nimbudocs Editor and edit-on NG
Presto 2.12.388 N/A No longer developed; Opera and Opera Mobile use Blink now; Nintendo DS & DSi Browser; Internet Channel
Prince 10 20160810 HTML to PDF converters: Prince (previously called PrinceXML), DocRaptor. The information in the Prince columns is also true of Prince for Books, a related layout engine.
Tasman (IE 5.2.3 for Mac) N/A No longer developed (aborted in 2003); Internet Explorer 5+ for Mac OS X
Trident 7.0 (IE 11) N/A Internet Explorer and other Internet Explorer shells like Maxthon (Microsoft Windows operating systems only), Windows Phone 8
WebKit 534.20 nightly build[note 3] Tizen (both OS and browser), Safari (both desktop and mobile), Google Chrome (before 28), Maxthon 3, Shiira, iCab 4, OmniWeb 5.5+, Web, Adobe AIR, Midori, surf, Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 and CS5, Android browser, Palm webOS browser, Symbian S60 browser, OWB, Steam, Rekonq, Arora, Flock (version 3+), RockMelt, Dolphin Browser, Konqueror[note 2]. Used by the LG Smart TV platform to enable web content on TVs. HTML to PDF converters: wkhtmltopdf, PhantomJS, Pdfcrowd[15],[16].
  1. "chromium / chromium/blink". Google. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
  2. 1 2 In Konqueror, the user can switch the used layout engine.
  3. "WebKit Nightly Builds". Retrieved 2014-05-27.


Values indicate the level of support in the most recent version of the layout engine, or (if a version number is given) in the specified version. Version numbers without any other value indicate the version at which the layout engine first fully supported the feature.

Value Meaning
Yes Indicates that the layout engine fully supports this property/element when valid values are used.
No Indicates that the property/element is completely ignored.
Partial Indicates that the property/element is understood, but that not all values are supported. Supported values are implemented correctly.
Incorrect Indicates that the property/element is understood, but that it is not implemented correctly in all cases.
Experimental Indicates that the property/element is understood, but supported under an alternate name. May be incomplete or buggy.
Dropped Indicates that the property/element is no longer supported.
Nightly build Indicates that the property/element is supported to some extent in an experimental/nightly build. Future support is expected.
Depends Indicates that the property/element is supported only on certain platforms, or if certain settings are configured.

Media types

The responses when a well-formatted XHTML document is served with different media types. Note that only application/xhtml+xml is the recommended media type.

Internet media type Trident Tasman Gecko WebKit KHTML Presto Prince XML
application/atom+xml ? ? ? ? ? 8.00 beta 2[o 1][o 2] ?
application/mathml+xml No No 2.0[g 1] No No 9.50 beta 2[o 3] ?
application/rss+xml ? ? ? ? ? 7.50 beta 1[o 4][o 5] ?
application/xhtml+xml XHTML 5.0 Prompt for download XHTML XHTML
application/xml XHTML 5.0 Crash XHTML XHTML
application/xslt+xml ? ? ? ? ? 9.00 beta 1[o 6] ?
image/svg+xml ? ? 1.0[g 2] ? ? 9.50[o 7][o 8] ?
text/xml XHTML 5.0 Crash XHTML XHTML

KHTML media type notes

  1. application/xhtml+xml KHTML supports this media type, but processes the document as HTML.
  2. application/xml, text/xml HTML entities and custom entities defined by custom DTD are not recognized.

Combined profiles

Extending XHTML by combining with other applications of XML (not referring using img/object element).

Trident Tasman Gecko WebKit KHTML Presto Prince XML
MathML No No 1.0 No[w 1] No 2.1 6.0
SVG 5.0 1.8 522 3.2 1.0 5.1
XForms No No[g 3] No[w 2] No No ?
VoiceXML No No 1.0 No


Gecko references

Opera references

  1. Feature History, Opera
  2. "Opera Features". RSS/Atom. Archived from the original on May 9, 2005.
  3. Feature History, Opera
  4. Feature History, Opera
  5. "Opera Features". RSS. Archived from the original on August 2, 2004.
  6. Feature History, Opera
  7. Feature History, Opera
  8. "Opera Features". SVG. Archived from the original on April 14, 2005. Retrieved May 1, 2005.

WebKit references

Other references

  1. "W3C XHTML FAQ".
  2. Amaya Binary Releases, Most recent download link in stable
  3. Change log between EdgeHTML 12.10240 and 13.10586
  4. "Firefox — Notes (50.0.2) — Mozilla". 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  5. "Firefox Extended Support Release — Notes (45.5.1) — Mozilla". 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  6. "Firefox — Beta Notes (50.0beta) — Mozilla". 2016-10-16. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  7. "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Firefox Beta in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  8. "Firefox — Aurora Notes (52.0a2) — Mozilla". 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  9. "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Developer Edition in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  10. "RapidRelease/Calendar - MozillaWiki". Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  11. "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Firefox Nightly in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  12. "Pale Moon Release Notes". Pale Moon. 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  13. "Pale Moon public beta/unstable branch release notes". Moonchild Productions. 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  14. Download for kdelibs, Most recent download link in stable
  15. Pdfcrowd FAQ, “Pdfcrowd is built around Webkit.”
  16. ‘Producer’ metadata in the resulting pdf., Free Online HTML Converter around Webkit
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