Allies of World War I

Allies of World War I
Military alliance
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers
Capital Not specified
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War I
   Established 1914
   Disestablished 1918
Succeeded by
Allies of World War II
European military alliances prior to the war.

The Allies of World War I were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

The members of the original Entente Alliance of 1907 were the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire. Italy ended its alliance with the Central Powers, arguing that Germany and Austria-Hungary started the war and that the alliance was only defensive in nature; it entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan was another important member. Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Romania[1] were affiliated members of the Entente.[2]

The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres defines the Principal Allied Powers as the British Empire, French Republic, Italy and Japan. The Allied Powers comprised, together with the Principal Allied Powers, Armenia, Belgium, Greece, Hejaz, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serb-Croat-Slovene state and Czechoslovakia.[3]

The U.S. declaration of war on Germany in April 1917 was on the grounds that Germany had violated its neutrality by attacking international shipping and the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico.[4] It declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917.[5][6] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than as a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[7] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[8]

The Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made great contributions to the Allied war effort, but did not have independent foreign policies in World War I with the British War Cabinet exercising operational control of British Empire forces. The Dominion governments did control recruiting, and removed personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917, the War Cabinet was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[9] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals. In April 1918, operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch of France.


A 1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente.

The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August. On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.

Of the two Low Countries involved in the war, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist state by the Entente powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgium's efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members. . The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal into the war.

On 23 May 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations joined, Portugal and Romania.

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war. Liberia, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Following the Versailles conference, Britain, France, Italy and Japan became the permanent members of the League of Nations council. The United States, meant to be the fifth permanent member, left because the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League.

Statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[10]
(million km2)
($ billion)
First Wave: 1914
Russia Russian Empire (inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
Total 176.4 22.1 264.3
French Third Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7
French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5
Total 88.1 11.2 170.2
British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4
British colonies 380.2 13.5 257
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5
Japanese colonies[11] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[12] 7.0 0.2 7.2
Second Wave (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Portugal Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7
Third Wave (1917–18)
United States United States 96.5 7.8 511.6
overseas dependencies[13] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[14] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7
Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[15]
(million km2)
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 76.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1916
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.0 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[16] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Major affiliated state combatants

United Kingdom

British Empire in 1914
British soldiers in a trench during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by shell fire during the Battle of Jutland.
British Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft during the war.

War justifications

In response to the Germans invasion of neutral Belgium, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[17] The British Empire held several semi-autonomous dominions that were automatically brought into the war effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland, and South Africa.

Colonies and dependencies

Main article: British Empire
In Europe

Gibraltar, Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in Europe.

In Africa

The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland, both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions against German forces from Togoland and Kamerun. In Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of South Africa was involved in military actions against German forces in German South-West Africa.

In North America

Canada and Newfoundland were two autonomous dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort.

Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica.

In Asia

The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the Indian Empire which was an assortment of British imperial authorities in the territory now defined as India, Bangladesh, Burma, and Pakistan.

Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya – referring to several Malay states under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements, North Borneo, Sri Lanka, and Hong Kong.

In Oceania

Australia and New Zealand were two autonomous dominions of the UK in Oceania during the war. Australia had become an independent nation state in 1901. Having strong cultural ties with the United Kingdom, the nations declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.


Main article: Russian Empire
Russian artillery firing.

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[18] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[18] Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[18] On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.

Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.[19]


French soldiers crossing a river on their way to Verdun during the Battle of Verdun.

After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[20]


Main article: Empire of Japan
Japanese soldiers landing in Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao in which Allied forces seized control of Germany's Kiautschou Bay concession.

Japan declared war on Germany after it did not accept an ultimatum sent by Japan to Germany, demanding that Germany extinguish its title to the Kiautschou Bay concession and restore that territory to China.[21] The Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public that Japan was not merely entering a "European War" on behalf of European powers, but that Japan was fighting on behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power, Germany, that Japan identified as the "source of evil in the Far East".[21] Thus as a result of this, Japan was following through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[21]


Main articles: Kingdom of Italy and Italian Empire
Italian alpine troops.

Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary since the 1880s, however the Triple Alliance stipulated that all parties must be consulted in the event of one country engaging in war and Italy was not informed of this.[22] As such Italy claimed that it was not obligated to join their war effort.[22] Italy's relations with Germany and Austria-Hungary in contrast to the Allies were additionally affected by the fact that in 1913, Britain supplied Italy with 90 percent of its annual imports of coal.[22] The war effort of the Central Powers meant that Germany and Austria-Hungary were using their coal supplies for the war, and little was available to be exported to Italy.[22] Italy initially attempted to pursue neutrality from 1914 to 1915.[22]

After diplomatic negotiations, Britain and France convinced Italy to join the war effort with promises that Italy would gain favourable territorial concessions from the Central Powers, including Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary.[23] Italy ordered mobilization on 22 May 1915, and issued an ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, and then declared war on Austria-Hungary, though it did not declare war on Germany.[23]


Main article: Kingdom of Serbia
Serbian soldiers during World War I

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.

During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.

The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed.


Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești

Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest.[24] Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.[25]

Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.[26]

Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal.[27] The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907.[28][29] The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns.[30] The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.[31]

Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power.[32] Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916),[33] the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942.[34] The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917.[35] Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania.[36] After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun".[37] The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila.[38][39] After Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.

Other affiliated state combatants


Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, but Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result, Belgium became a member of the Allies.


Brazilian soldiers in World War I.

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers.


Main article: Kingdom of Montenegro

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Nejd and Hasa

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[40]

Idrisid Emirate of Asir

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Major co-belligerent state combatants

United States

The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[4] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly eight decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power," rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements."[7] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[8]

Non-state combatants

Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:


Kingdom of Serbia Serbia

Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro

Russian Empire Russia (1914–1917)

Belgium Belgium

France France

United Kingdom British Empire

Canada Dominion of Canada

Australia Commonwealth of Australia

British Raj Empire of India

Union of South Africa Union of South Africa

New Zealand New Zealand

Dominion of Newfoundland Dominion of Newfoundland

Empire of Japan Japan

Kingdom of Italy Italy (1915–1918)

Kingdom of Romania Romania (1916–1918)

Kingdom of Greece Greece (1917–1918)

United States United States (1917–1918)

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.

Portugal Portugal (1917–1918)

The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919.

Thailand Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)

See main Article: Siam in World War I

Brazil Brazil (1917–1918)

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

Armenia Armenia (1918)

Personnel and casualties

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia412,953161,928[42] 152,171214,09952%
Belgium267,000338,172[43] 44,68682,85831%
France8,410,00031,397,800[45] 4,266,0005,663,80067%
New Zealand128,525118,050[52]41,31759,36746%
Russia12,000,00031,811,000[55]4,950,000 6,761,00056%
South Africa 136,07019,463[57]12,02921,49216%
United Kingdom6,211,9222886,342[58]1,665,7492,552,09141%
United States4,355,0003116,708[59]205,690322,3987%
Total 42,244,4095,741,38912,925,83318,744,54749%

Summary of Declarations of War

The following table shows the timeline of the several declarations of war among the belligerent powers. Entries on a yellow background show severed diplomatic relations only, not actual declarations of war. Unless stated otherwise, declarations of war by and on the United Kingdom include de facto declarations by and on other members of the British Empire.

Date Declarer On
28 July Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
1 August German Empire Germany Russian Empire Russia
3 August German Empire Germany France France
4 August German Empire Germany Belgium Belgium
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom German Empire Germany
5 August Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
6 August Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Serbia Serbia German Empire Germany
9 August Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro German Empire Germany
11 August France France Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
12 August United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
22 August Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Belgium Belgium
23 August Empire of Japan Japan German Empire Germany
25 August Empire of Japan Japan Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
1 November Russian Empire Russia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
2 November Kingdom of Serbia Serbia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
3 November Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
5 November United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
France France
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
23 May Kingdom of Italy Italy Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
3 June San Marino San Marino Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
21 August Kingdom of Italy Italy Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
14 October Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
15 October United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
16 October France France Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
19 October Kingdom of Italy Italy
Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
9 March German Empire Germany Portugal Portugal
15 March Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Portugal Portugal
27 August Kingdom of Romania Romania Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Kingdom of Italy Italy German Empire Germany
28 August German Empire Germany Kingdom of Romania Romania
30 August Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Romania Romania
1 September Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Romania Romania
6 April United States United States German Empire Germany
7 April Cuba Cuba German Empire Germany
10 April Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria United States United States
13 April Bolivia Bolivia German Empire Germany
20 April Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire United States United States
2 July Kingdom of Greece Greece German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
22 July Thailand Siam German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
4 August Liberia Liberia German Empire Germany
14 August Republic of China (1912–49) China German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
6 October Peru Peru German Empire Germany
7 October Uruguay Uruguay German Empire Germany
26 October Brazil Brazil German Empire Germany[60]
7 December United States United States Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
7 December Ecuador Ecuador German Empire Germany
10 December Panama Panama Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
16 December Cuba Cuba Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
23 April Guatemala Guatemala German Empire Germany
8 May Nicaragua Nicaragua German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
23 May Costa Rica Costa Rica German Empire Germany
12 July Haiti Haiti German Empire Germany
19 July Honduras Honduras German Empire Germany
10 November Kingdom of Romania Romania (re-enters war) German Empire Germany

See also


  1. Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  2. First World – Feature Articles – The Causes of World War One
  3. The Treaty of Sèvres, 1920
  4. 1 2 US Declaration of War
  5. Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
  6. H.J.Res.169: Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary, WWI, United States Senate
  7. 1 2 Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  8. 1 2 Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  9. Perry (2004), p.xiii
  10. S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  11. Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  12. Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  13. As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  14. Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  15. S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  16. Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  17. Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  18. 1 2 3 Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262
  19. Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
  20. Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  21. 1 2 3 Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P155.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
  23. 1 2 Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
  24. Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135
  25. Spencer C. Tucker, Pricilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273
  26. Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian)
  27. Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  28. International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160
  29. Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343
  30. Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422
  31. Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian)
  32. Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282
  33. Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58
  34. Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German)
  35. România în anii primului război mondial (Romania int he years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian)
  36. Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287
  37. King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347
  38. Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29
  39. René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142
  40. Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186.
  41. first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  42. Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
  43. Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
  44. Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
  45. France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
  46. Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
  47. India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
  48. Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
  49. War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
  50. 1 2 3 Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur | Nice-Matin
  51. Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  52. New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
  53. Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
  54. Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
  55. Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
  56. Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
  57. South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
  58. UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
  59. United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.
  60. Declarations of War, 1914–1918



See List of World War I books

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