Serious Crime Act 2007

The Serious Crime Act 2007[1]

Long title An Act to make provision about serious crime prevention orders; to create offences in respect of the encouragement or assistance of crime; to enable information to be shared or processed to prevent fraud or for purposes relating to proceeds of crime; to enable data matching to be conducted both in relation to fraud and for other purposes; to transfer functions of the Director of the Assets Recovery Agency to the Serious Organised Crime Agency and other persons and to make further provision in connection with the abolition of the Agency and the office of Director; to amend the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in relation to certain investigations and in relation to accredited financial investigators, management receivers and enforcement receivers, cash recovery proceedings and search warrants; to extend stop and search powers in connection with incidents involving serious violence; to make amendments relating to Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs in connection with the regulation of investigatory powers; and for connected purposes.
Citation 2007 c. 27
Introduced by Home Office Minister Baroness Scotland 16 January 2007
Territorial extent England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
Royal assent 30 October 2007
Commencement from 15 February 2008[2]
Other legislation
Amended by
Repealed by
Relates to
Status: Not fully in force
History of passage through Parliament
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended

The Serious Crime Act 2007 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that makes several radical changes to English criminal law. In particular, it creates a new scheme of serious crime prevention orders to frustrate crime in England and Wales and in Northern Ireland, replaces the common law crime of incitement with a statutory offence of encouraging or assisting crime, makes provision as to disclosure and information sharing in order to prevent fraud, and abolishes the Assets Recovery Agency creating a new regime for the recovery of the proceeds of crime.

Serious crime prevention orders

These provisions came into force on 6 April 2008.[3]

Section 1 allows the High Court of Justice in England and Wales, and the High Court in Northern Ireland to make serious crime prevention orders containing prohibitions, restrictions, requirements and other terms where:

The burden of proof of these issues is on the person applying for the order on the balance of probabilities (ss. 35–36). Orders can only be imposed on individuals aged 18 or over (s.6) and only at the instigation of the Director of Public Prosecutions, Director of Revenue and Customs Prosecutions, Director of the Serious Fraud Office, or Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland (s.8). Orders must be of specified duration, not exceeding five years (s.14)

A serious crime prevention order is a new kind of civil injunction, breach of which is a crime,[4] punishable on summary conviction in the Magistrates' Court by up to six months' imprisonment and a fine of up to level 5 on the standard scale. If convicted on indictment in the Crown Court, a person can be imprisoned for up to five years and given an unlimited fine (s. 25). The court also has powers of forfeiture (s. 26) and liquidation of a corporation (ss. 27–29).

A person has been involved in serious crime if he has (s. 2):

An order imposed on an individual, including a partner, can include requirements as to, but not limited to (s.5(3)):

An order imposed on a body corporate, partnership or unincorporated association can include requirements as to, but not limited to (s.5(4)):

An individual or organisation can be required to answer questions, or provide information or documents, at a time, within a period or at a frequency, and place, in a manner and form specified to a law enforcement officer](s.5(5)). A person cannot be ordered to give oral information (s.11) nor information in breach of legal professional privilege (s.12).

Serious offences

In England and Wales, a serious offence is one of those specified in Part 1 of Schedule 1, or one which "the court considers to be sufficiently serious to be treated for the purposes of the application or matter as if it were so specified." A similar definition exists for Northern Ireland (Sch.2/ Pt. 2). For crimes committed abroad, the test is whether they would be crimes in England and Wales, or Northern Ireland, or whether they are serious enough to be so treated (s.2).

Serious offences include (Sch. 1):


For an order to be valid, the subject must be represented at the hearing or served with notice (s.10). Third parties may make representations to the hearing if they would be affected by the order (s.9).

In England and Wales, where a person is convicted of a serious offence in the Crown Court, or committed for sentencing from the Magistrates' Court, the Crown Court can make an order (s.19).

The courts have wide powers to vary or discharge orders (ss.18-19, 20-22) and there is also a route of appeal from the Crown Court or High Court to the Court of Appeal by any party involved (ss.23-24).

A law enforcement agency may appoint authorised monitors to supervise compliance with the order and the court may order that the subject of an order pay the costs of the monitoring (ss.39-40).

Encouraging or assisting crime

Part 2 of the Act came into force on 1 October 2008.[5]

Section 59 abolishes the common law offence of incitement in England and Wales, and Northern Ireland, and replaces it with three new offences:

Intentionally encouraging or assisting an offence

Section 44 creates the crime of:

A person is not taken to have intended to encourage or assist an offence merely because such encouragement or assistance was a foreseeable consequence of his act. The offence is triable in the same manner, summarily or on indictment, as the anticipated offence (s.55(1)) and, on conviction, a person can be sentenced to the same penalty as applies to the anticipated offence (s.58).

Encouraging or assisting an offence believing it will be committed

Section 45 creates the crime of:

The offence is triable in the same manner, summarily or on indictment, as the anticipated offence (s.55(1)) and, on conviction, a person can be sentenced to the same penalty as applies to the anticipated offence (s.58). Professor Dennis J. Baker provides the most detailed analysis of these provisions. See Dennis J. Baker, Glanville Williams: Textbook of Criminal Law, (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2015) at Chapter 20. In a recent article, Baker "tries to identify the limits of derivative liability and its alternatives. In this article, I provide a doctrinal and theoretical analysis of the new independent direct liability offenses found in section 44-46 of Britain’s Serious Crime Act 2007 to highlight how independent offenses punishing acts of assistance and encouragement are fairer than making accessories and perpetrators equally liable under the law of complicity. I also examine the conduct element for these offenses to determine whether it is apt for catching the sort of reckless encouragement that is often present in the joint enterprise (common purpose) complicity cases and conclude that it is. The main shortfall of the offenses found in the Serious Crime Act 2007 is that they do not cover reckless participation. I conclude that section 44 covers only intentional (inchoate) participation and that section 45 covers only oblique intentional (inchoate) participation. It is submitted that section 45 of the Act of 2007 should be supplemented with a section 45A offense criminalizing reckless (inchoate) participation. Section 45 is an independent offense that criminalizes personal wrongdoing and as it is not a form of derivative liability, but rather personal liability, it allows for fair labeling and proportionate punishment for the independent wrong involved in encouraging and assisting another to perpetrate a crime. Therefore, a variant of the section 45 offense with recklessness as its mental element would also allow for fair labeling and proportionate punishment." See Dennis J. Baker, "Conceptualizing Inchoate Complicity: The Normative and Doctrinal Case for Lessor Offenses as an Alternative to Complicity Liability," (2016) Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1.Available at SSRN:

Encouraging or assisting offences believing one or more will be committed

Section 46 creates the crime of:

The offence is triable on indictment (s.55(2)) and, on conviction, a person can be sentenced to the maximum penalty of those applying to the anticipated offences (s.58).


It is a defence that a person acted reasonably, based on his knowledge or belief, considering the seriousness of the anticipated offence and the purpose and authority with which he acted (s.50). The burden of proof of such facts is on the defendant on the balance of probabilities.[6]

Where an offence exists to protect a certain class of persons, such a person does not commit an offence under ss.44-46 if the anticipated offence would have been committed against him (s.51).

Disclosure and sharing of information to prevent fraud

These provisions began to come into force as of 1 March 2008 and affect various parts of the United Kingdom (s.93).[2][3]

Section 68 authorises the disclosure by public bodies of information for the purposes of preventing fraud to any anti-fraud organisation, defined as "any unincorporated association, body corporate or other person which enables or facilitates any sharing of information to prevent fraud or a particular kind of fraud or which has any of these functions as its purpose or one of its purposes". Such disclosure must not contravene the Data Protection Act 1998 or the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 and must be subject to a defined Code of Practice (s.71).

It is a crime for a person to make further unauthorised disclosure of such information (s.69). On summary conviction, an offender can be sentenced to up to 12 months' imprisonment and a fine of up to level 5 on the standard scale. On indictment in the Crown Court, an offender can be sentenced to up to two years' imprisonment and an unlimited fine (s.70).

Section 73 and Schedule 7 authorise certain bodies to conduct data matching exercises for the purpose of preventing or detecting fraud. Data matching is described in the Act as any "exercise involving the comparison of sets of data to determine how far they match (including the identification of any patterns and trends)". The authorised bodies are:

These provisions put on a statutory basis the National Fraud Initiative that has been operated for some years by the same authorised bodies and by Audit Scotland.

Proceeds of crime

As of 1 March 2008,[2][3] the transfer of the Director and staff of the Assets Recovery Agency, its property, rights and liabilities to the Serious Organised Crime Agency and the National Policing Improvement Agency started in anticipation of the Agency's abolition (s.74/ Schs.8-9). The Agency ceased to exist on 1 April 2008.[7] Sections 75 to 81 make various amendments to the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

Territorial extent and devolved matters

The provisions largely apply to England and Wales, and Northern Ireland but some provisions, as to disclosure and sharing of information and proceeds of crime, apply in Scotland. These provision fall under the Sewel convention which demands the consent of the Scottish Parliament for Westminster to legislate on devolved issues. Such consent was granted.[8]


  1. The citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by section 95 of this Act.
  2. 1 2 3 Serious Crime Act 2007 (Commencement No.1) Order 2008, SI 2008/219
  3. 1 2 3 Serious Crime Act 2007 (Commencement No.2 and Transitional and Transitory Provisions and Savings) Order 2008, SI 2008/755
  4. "Explanatory Note to Serious Crime Act 2007". Office of Public Sector Information. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-23., para. 14
  5. Serious Crime Act 2007 (Commencement No. 3) Order 2008
  6. Richardson, P. J. (ed.) (2007). Archbold: Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice. London: Sweet & Maxwell. pp. 4‑388–4‑390. ISBN 0-421-94830-2.
  7. Assets Recovery Agency (Abolition) Order 2008, SI 2008/575
  8. "Explanatory Note to Serious Crime Act 2007". Office of Public Sector Information. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-23., paras.10-12


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