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What are Flavonoids?

What are Flavonoids?


  1. 1. Citrus Flavonoids
    1. 1.1. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN)
    2. 1.2. Cosmosiin
    3. 1.3. Diosmin
    4. 1.4. Didymin
    5. 1.5. Hesperetin
    6. 1.6. Hesperidin
      1. 1.6.1. Natural Sources
    7. 1.7. Isosinensetin
    8. 1.8. Naringenin
    9. 1.9. Naringin
    10. 1.10. Neohesperidin
    11. 1.11. Nobiletin
    12. 1.12. Poncirin
    13. 1.13. Quercetin
    14. 1.14. Rhoifolin
    15. 1.15. Rutin
    16. 1.16. Sinensetin
    17. 1.17. Sudachitin
    18. 1.18. Tangeretin
    19. 1.19. Xanthohumol

Flavonoids are the most diverse group of phytochemicals.

Flavonoids are divided into six classes:

  • Flavanols (flavan-3-ol)
  • Flavanones
  • Flavones
  • Flavonols
  • Isoflavonoids
  • Anthocyanidins

Citrus Flavonoids

8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN)

8-Prenylnaringenin is a phytoestrogen. It is reported to be the most estrogenic phytoestrogen known.

8-prenylnaringenin is a natural compound, structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids.

It is notable compound in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a key ingredient for beer brewing.

Due to its estrogenic effects, 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women.[1]

Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results.[1:1]

Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth.[1:2]

Cosmosiin

Diosmin

Didymin

Hesperetin

Hesperidin

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits. Hesperidin was first isolated from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp) in 1828. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense.

Natural Sources

  • Citrus aurantium L. - Bitter Orange, Petitgrain
    • Petitgrain is an essential oil that is extracted from the leaves and green twigs of the bitter orange tree via steam distillation. It is also known as petitgrain bigarade.
  • Orange juice (Citrus sinensis)
  • Zanthoxylum gilletii
    • aka the East African satinwood, is a tree species in the genus Zanthoxylum found in Africa. The fruits are used to produce the spice uzazi.
  • lemon
  • lime
  • leaves of Agathosma serratifolia
  • Peppermint
  • blood orange
  • grapefruit

Isosinensetin

Naringenin

Naringin

Neohesperidin

Nobiletin

Poncirin

Quercetin

Rhoifolin

Rutin

Sinensetin

Sudachitin

Tangeretin

Xanthohumol


  1. Title: Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops
    Publication: MDPI Journal - Molecules
    Date: March 2018
    Study Type: Human: Case Review
    Author(s): Kateřina Štulíková, Marcel Karabín, Jakub Nešpor, and Pavel Dostálek
    Institution(s): Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
    Abstract: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.), as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women. Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results. Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth. On the other hand, the use of phytoestrogens is frequently questioned regarding possible adverse effects associated with long-term consumption. In conclusion, we emphasize the implications of using 8-PN in future treatments of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, including the need for precise evidence and further investigations to define the safety risks related to its therapeutic use.
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