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  1. 1. Common Species
  2. 2. Composition
  3. 3. Healing Properties
    1. 3.1. Anticancerous
    2. 3.2. Antimicrobial
      1. 3.2.1. Antiviral
        1. COVID-19 Prevention
    3. 3.3. Antiperoxidation
    4. 3.4. Brain Health
      1. 3.4.1. Neuroprotective
    5. 3.5. Metal chelation
  4. 4. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 4.1. Breast cancer
    2. 4.2. Colon cancer
      1. 4.2.1. Chemopreventive
    3. 4.3. Psychosis
    4. 4.4. Viral Infection
      1. 4.4.1. Coronavirus (Covid19)

Orange primarily refers to to the fruit of Citrus sinensis, the sweet orange. Citrus sinensis includes the sweet oranges as well as blood oranges and navel oranges.

Common Species

Some other common species of Citrus related to oranges:

  • Citrus limetta (Mosambi)
  • Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange)
  • Citrus reticulate (Mandarin orange)
  • Citrus aurantium (Bitter orange or Sour orange)
  • Citrus sinensis (Malta)
  • Citrus bergamia Risso (Bergamot orange)
  • Citrus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)
  • Citrus sinensis osbeck (Sathgudi)
  • Citrus grandis (Pomelo)


Orange Fruit contains:

  • Alkaloids
  • Coumarins
  • Essential oils
    • D-limonene
  • Flavonoids
    • Eriocitrin
    • Hesperidin
    • Naringin
    • Narirutin
  • Geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA)
  • Limonoids
    • limonin
    • nomilin
    • nomilinic acid.
  • Pectin
  • Auraptene (monoterpene coumarin ether)
  • Synephrine

Healing Properties




COVID-19 Prevention

Naringin and hespertin revealed a potential binding with the ACE2 protein, which could prevent COVID-19 infection.[1]


Antiperoxidation can be mediated the potential of controlling glucose levels. Orange peel contributes to antiperoxidation by the inhibition of alpha-amylase enzyme activity which helps mainly in the conversion of complex carbohydrates into glucose.

Brain Health


Geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) has neuroprotective effects.

Metal chelation

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Breast cancer

Colon cancer


Geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) has chemopreventive effects.


Viral Infection

Coronavirus (Covid19)

Citrus fruits are rich in flavonoids compounds, which are highly recommended to block beta coronavirus.[1:1]

Hesperetin, a major citrus flavonoid, has showed an anti-SARS-coronavirus activity through the inhibition of 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease.[1:2]

Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and neodiosmin have revealed an inhibition of the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease.

Naringin and rutin were used to prevent and decrease plasma cytokines levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IFNɤ in-patients with SARS-CoV-2.[1:3]

Naringin and hespertin revealed a potential binding with the ACE2 protein, which could prevent COVID-19 infection.[1:4]

Dried orange peels havebeen used for treatment of psychosis.[1:5]

  1. Title: Phytochemicals candidates as promising preventives and/or curatives for COVID-19 Infection: A brief review
    Publication: Heighten Science Publications Corporation
    Date: March 2021
    Study Type: Mini Review
    Author(s): Selma Hamimed, Nejib Jebli, Rayene Hamimed, Ahmed Landoulsi, and Abdelwaheb Chatti
    Institutions: University of Carthage, Jarzouna, Tunisia; University of Tebessa, Tebessa, Algeria
    Copy: archive, archive-mirror ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎ ↩︎