Zhu Changfang

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhu.

Zhu Changfang (Chinese: 朱常淓; pinyin: Zhū Chángfāng), also known as the Jingyi Taoist (Chinese: 敬一道人; 1608–1646) was the last Prince of Lu (Chinese: 潞王) (an area claimed by one source as being near Hangzhou[1] and by another as being centered on Weihui in Henan[2]) and a member of the Imperial family of the Southern Ming dynasty. He was the son of Zhu Yiliu (Chinese: 簡王翊鏐) and the grandson of the Longqing Emperor. He inherited the title Prince of Lu from his father in 1618.[2]

When Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng rebelled against the Chongzhen Emperor, Zhu applied to the throne for permission to undertake military action against the rebels. However his campaign was unsuccessful and he was forced to flee to Hangzhou. After the Chongzhen Emperor's suicide in 1644, Zhu was petitioned by his advisors Shi Kefa and Gao Hongtu (Chinese: 高弘圖) to assume the throne in exile, however it was his relative Zhu Yousong who eventually took the throne as the Hongguang Emperor.[3]

Zhu was a noted practitioner of calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting, as well as being a musician who performed on the guqin. He made (or oversaw the making of) over 300 guqin, created a new type of guqin incorporating Western design elements, and developed a guqin musical style he termed the "Central Harmony".[4][5] He also wrote a treatise on the instrument, the Guyin Zhengzong, in 1634, as well as a book on Chinese chess.[2] Zhu's main literary output was, however, biographical; he composed a considerable number of biographies of imperial personages.[6]

Zhu's calligraphy was well-regarded by contemporary critics.[5][6] His calligraphy was patterned after that of Wang Xizhi, and he produced calligraphic and artistic works in several styles.[5] He was responsible for inscriptions at the City God Temple at Weihui and the Western Great Temple in Zhonghe,[7] as well as many other inscriptions and scrolls, but after his death his work was largely overlooked, to the extent that one of his bronze inscriptions was listed in a Qing catalogue of antiquaries as being from the Zhou Dynasty (which ended over 800 years before Zhu's birth).[6]

After his father's death Zhu had an elaborate mausoleum constructed in Xinxiang County, covering over 157,000 square metres (39 acres). The mausoleum incorporated several unorthodox elements, including a separate grave for his father's concubine, a greater number of guards than normal, and novel animal sculptures.[5]

Zhu was executed in 1646 in Beijing, after surrendering to the Qing dynasty along with a number of other Southern Ming princes.[2][3]


  1. "Ji mao zhong qiu you deng Wang yue lou ([Chinese rubbings])". University of Cambridge Digital Library. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Zhou, Qingyun (1919). Qin Shi Xu (Continuation of History of the Qin, 1919). John Thompson. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  3. 1 2 "Persons in Chinese History – Zhu Changfang 朱常淓, Prince of Lu 潞王". China Knowledge. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  4. 中國漆藝二千年: Catalogue of an exhibition jointly presented by the Oriental Ceramic Society of Hong Kong and the Art Gallery, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 24th September to 21st November, 1993. Oriental Ceramic Society of Hong Kong. 1993. p. 216. ISBN 978-962-7101-26-0.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Roger V. Des Forges (2003). Cultural Centrality and Political Change in Chinese History: Northeast Henan in the Fall of the Ming. Stanford University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-8047-4044-9.
  6. 1 2 3 Craig Clunas (15 June 2013). Screen of Kings: Royal Art and Power in Ming China. Reaktion Books. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-78023-140-2.
  7. Richard G. Wang (23 August 2012). The Ming Prince and Daoism: Institutional Patronage of an Elite. OUP USA. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-19-976768-7.
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