Yukhoe served with separate egg yolk
Korean name
Hangul 육회
Revised Romanization Yukhoe
McCune–Reischauer Yukhoe

Yukhoe [jukʰwe] is a raw dish in Korean cuisine), which are usually made from raw beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. It is basically a Korean steak tartare. Usually the most tender part of beef will be used. The beef is thinly julienned with the fat removed, then mixed with seasoning.[1]

For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, spring onion, minced garlic, sesame seeds, black pepper and julienned bae (Korean pear) are used. A raw egg yolk is usually added, either on top of the dish or separately. Pine nuts may be added, as well.[1]

Yukhoe can be also made with other variety meats, such as liver, kidney, heart, cheonyeop, or yang, in which case the dish is called gaphoe (Hangul: 갑회, hanja: ). The ingredients are thoroughly cleaned and salted, then rinsed and dried to remove unpleasant odors. Gaphoe is usually seasoned with sesame oil, salt and pepper, and is served with a spicy mustard sauce.[2]


 yukhoe alt text
Yukhoe with julienned cucumbers and bae

"According to the 19th century cookbook Siuijeonseo (Hangul: 시의전서, hanja: ), thin slices of tender beef are soaked to remove blood before being finely shredded. The shredded beef is then marinated in a mixed sauce of chopped spring onion, minced garlic, pepper, oil, honey, pine nuts, sesame, and salt. Its dipping sauce, chogochujang (Hangul: 초고추장), chili pepper condiment mixed with vinegar and sugar) can be altered to taste, with pepper or honey.[3]

Health concerns

Meat in Korean cuisine has highly detailed classifications regarding freshness, quality, and part differentiation for specific cooking methods.[4] Since yukhoe uses raw beef, freshness is the most important criterion, and for this typical dish's beef it is recommended to use no more than one day after defrosting, and traditionally should not be aged more than one day after slaughtering. Regular Korean yukhoe customers are often patrons of trusted restaurants or butcher's shops which have well-known, high-quality beef distributors.[5][6][7]

Since 2004, the Korean Government has run the Beef Traceability System . This system requires ID numbers with the age of the beef animal of origin, supplier, distributor, the beef's grade, and butchering date and originating butchery. Most of the good beef restaurants in Korea list their beef's information on the wall. Also, butcher shops post signs saying, "New beef coming day ( Hangul : 소 들어오는 날 )": These words have become a well-known idiom in Korea.[8] and it means newly butchered beef supplied at the day.

Raw beef can be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (O111 or O157:H7) being of particular concern. But only by freshness of beef, the risk can be reduced.[9]

Japan 2011 incident

In April and May 2011, five people died and more than 35 people were hospitalised after eating yukke (Japanese spelling)[10] made from beef not designated for raw consumption in various branches of a bulgogi restaurant chain in Toyama and Kanagawa prefectures, Japan, with enterohemorrhagic E. coli bacteria found in many of the cases.[11][12][13]

As a result, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) has developed new regulations[14] to require cooking the surface 1 cm deep to further reduce contamination.

On October 22, the last hospitalized 14 year boy died of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The total death toll of this incident became five persons.[15] The MHLW developed regulations for trimming raw beef[16] to remove surface contamination.

See also


  1. 1 2 (Korean) Yukhoe at Doosan Encyclopedia
  2. (Korean) Gaphoe at Doosan Encyclopedia
  3. (Korean)Yukhoe Archived June 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. at Korea Britannica
  4. (korean) Cooking of meats in Korean cuisine at Doosan Encyclopedia
  5. KAPE.
  6. HACCP
  7. Yukhoe : Steak tartare in Visit Seoul
  8. (Korean) "New Korean beef coming day" Launched by GS shop
  9. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241547895_eng.pdf
  10. Asahi Shimbun "2nd E. coli death linked to popular barbecue chain", Asahi Shimbun, May 3, 2011, accessed May 9, 2011.
  11. Kyodo "Death toll in food poisoning at 'yakiniku' chain reaches 4", Japan Times, May 6, 2011, accessed May 6, 2011.
  12. Kyodo "Police launch raids over fatal 'yakiniku' poisonings" Archived May 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Japan Times, May 6, 2011, accessed May 6, 2011.
  13. "Concerns, Questions Mount in Fatal Raw Beef Case". The Wall Street Journal. May 6, 2011.
  14. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T111002002604.htm Accessed 10/04/11
  15. "ユッケ食中毒5人目死亡 (Yukhoe food poisoning killed five people.)" (in Japanese). Asahi.com. October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/62fdtacVY )
  16. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ed20110516a1.html Accessed 10/04/11
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