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Yerida (Hebrew: ירידה yerida, "descent") is a Hebrew term referring to emigration by Israeli Jews from the State of Israel (or in religious texts, Land of Israel). Yerida is the opposite of Aliyah (lit. "ascent"), which is immigration to Israel. Zionists are generally critical of the act of yerida and the term is somewhat derogatory.[1]

Common reasons for emigration given are the high cost of living, a desire to escape from the instability of ongoing Palestinian political violence and the Arab–Israeli conflict, academic or professional ambitions, and disillusion with Israeli society.[2]


Emigrants from Israel are known as yordim ("those who go down [from Israel]"). Immigrants to Israel are known as olim ("those who go up [to Israel]"). The use of the Hebrew word "Yored" (which means "descending") is a modern renewal of a term taken from the Torah: "אנכי ארד עמך מצרימה ואנכי אעלך גם עלו" ("I myself will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up again" Genesis 46:4), "ויהי רעב בארץ; וירד אברם מצרימה לגור שם כי-כבד הרעב בארץ" ("Now there was a famine in the land, and Abram went down to Egypt to live there because the famine was severe." Genesis 12:10), and from the Mishnah: "הכל מעלין לארץ ישראל ואין הכל מוציאין", and from the Talmud "ארץ ישראל גבוה מכל הארצות" (The Land of Israel is higher than all the [other] lands).

Jewish law

Jewish Law or Halakha defines certain restrictions on emigration from Israel. According to Moses Maimonides, it is only permitted to emigrate and resettle abroad in cases of severe hunger. Joseph Trani determined that it is permissible to emigrate from Israel for marriage, to study Torah or to support oneself, including in cases where famine is not present. In any case, emigration from Israel and even temporary departure is not thought of in Orthodox or traditional Judaism as a worthy act for a man.[3]


It is difficult to estimate the number of people who emigrated from Israel between the start of the Zionist movement and the establishment of the state of Israel, or the proportion of emigrants compared with the number of immigrants into the country. Estimates of the extent of emigration during the period of the initial Zionist settlement in Palestine with the First Aliyah, as well as the Second Aliyah, range between approximately 40% (an estimation made by Joshua Kaniel) of all immigrants and up to 80–90%. Although the precise number is unknown, it is known that many of the European Jewish immigrants during this period gave up after a few months and left, often suffering from hunger and disease.[4] In the latter part of the fourth immigration wave, during 1926–1928, the mandatory authorities recorded 17,972 Jewish immigrants, and the Jewish Agency counted about 1,100 more who were not registered with the authorities. During the same period, the authorities recorded 14,607 Jewish emigrants.[5]

After Israel was established in 1948, the country experienced a wave of mass immigration lasting from 1948 to 1951, primarily from post-Holocaust Europe and Arab and Muslim countries, absorbing 688,000 immigrants during this period. However, some 10% of these immigrants would leave the country in the following years, primarily to Canada, Australia, and South America. A small number went to the United States, and it was thought that the US would be the primary destination had immigration restrictions set out by the Immigration Act of 1924 had not still been in place. By 1953, the wave of immigration had leveled off, and emigration was increasing.[6][7] Initially, emigration from Israel was composed largely of immigrants who were unsatisfied with life there, but in the mid-1970s, number of native Israelis leaving the country grew.[8]

In 1980 deputy Prime Minister Simha Erlich and the Director of the Jewish Agency Shmuel Lahis studied emigration to the United States. The Lahis Report estimated that there were 300,000 to 500,000 Israelis living in the United States, mainly in New York and Los Angeles.[9] In 1982, Dov Shilansky, a Deputy Minister who was tasked with heading efforts to prevent Yerida, noted that some 300,000 Israelis had emigrated since 1948, and attributed a housing shortage and high unemployment as the primary reasons for Israeli emigration at the time.[10]

Yerida skyrocketed in the mid-1980s, due to a combination of the effects of the 1982 Lebanon War, exposure of Israeli tourists to other cultures and new opportunities in other Western countries, and an economic crisis brought on by the 1983 Israel bank stock crisis. In 1984 and 1985, more Jews emigrated from than immigrated to Israel.[11] At the time, the Israeli government became alarmed over the large amount of emigration, and politicians and government entities often cited statistics claiming that hundreds of thousands of Israelis were living abroad. However, these statistics may not have been accurate; around this time, Pini Herman, a demographer, interviewed an Israeli government statistician in charge of compiling data on yordim. According to Herman, the data showed that since 1948, fewer than 400,000 Israelis had moved abroad and never returned. When he asked him how other government entities regularly claimed much higher figures, the statistician said that his bureau was never actually consulted.[12]

In November 2003, the Ministry of Immigration and Absorption estimated that 750,000 Israelis were living abroad, primarily in the United States and Canada—about 12.5 percent of the Jewish population of Israel.[13] In April 2008, the Ministry of Immigration and Absorption estimated that 700,000 Israelis were living abroad, of those, 450,000 were living in the U.S. and Canada, and 50,000-70,000 in Britain.[14]

In 2012, a new Global Religion and Migration Database constructed by the Pew Research Center showed that there were a total of 330,000 native-born Israelis, including 230,000 Jews, living abroad, approximately 4% of Israel's native-born Jewish population. Immigrants to Israel who later left were not counted. Danny Gadot of the Israeli consulate in Los Angeles claimed that although some 600,000-750,000 Israelis were estimated to living in the United States, many were not native-born and in fact the children of Israeli expatriates, as the children of Israelis born abroad are counted as Israeli citizens.[12] That year, it was reported that yerida had hit a 40-year low, while the number of Israelis returning from abroad had increased.[15]


Reasons for emigration phenomenon

The main motives for leaving Israel are usually connected with the emigrants' desire for improved living standards, or to search for work opportunities and professional advancement, for higher education. Polls amongst emigrants have shown that the political situation and security threats in Israel are not among the main factors in emigration. Emigration is also common amongst new immigrants who did not successfully integrate into Israeli society, or who already made one major residence change in their lives and therefore found an additional change easier to make. Some of the immigrants move to a third country, almost always in the West, and some of them return to the country of their origin, a phenomenon which increases when the conditions in the country of origin improve, as occurred in the former USSR in the first decade of the 21st century.

Since the founding of the State of Israel, polls have shown that those leaving the country were on average more educated than the ones who remained in Israel. This phenomenon is even more extreme amongst new immigrants who leave Israel than amongst native-born Israelis who leave Israel. Therefore, the emigration from Israel has occasionally been referred to as a Brain drain. An OECD estimate put the highly educated emigrant rate at 5.3 per thousand highly educated Israelis, actually placing Israel in the lower third compared to OECD countries where the overall average was 14 per thousand highly educated emigrants. Israel, with its well developed technical and educational infrastructure and larger base of highly educated citizens, is retaining a greater percentage of its highly educated persons than developed countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, Finland, Denmark and New Zealand.[41]

Circular migration

The migration of Israeli Jews was often thought to be unidirectional and described as yerida, but there is reason to believe that a significant pattern of return, hazara (חזרה hazara, "return"), has been described as returning to Israel after relatively long periods, of at least a year or more, where homes and livelihoods have to be established or re-established. Most Israelis who emigrate do not leave permanently, and eventually return home after an extended period abroad.[42] This circular migration may be especially pronounced for highly skilled[43] and highly educated Israeli migrants and their families.

In 2007 a special program by the Immigrant Absorption Minister of Israel was announced, intended to encourage Israeli emigrants to return to Israel. It was further decided that by 2008 the Ministry would invest 19 million shekels to establish lucrative absorption plans for the returning emigrants. (see: Taxation in Israel). Until then, 4,000 Israeli expatriates returned each year. In 2008, these numbers began growing. Since the start of this campaign, the number of Israelis returning home has doubled. Return reached a peak of 11,000 in 2010. From 2010 to October 2012, a record 22,470 Israelis returned, including 4,837 academics and researchers, 2,720 technical professionals, and 681 business managers.[44]

Israel has granted the legal status of Toshav Hozer (תושב חוזר toshav hozer, "returning resident") to Israeli citizens having resided abroad for at least two years (1.5 years for students); during his/her time abroad, has not visited Israel for 120 days or more per year (365 days); has not used his/her rights as a returning resident in the past.[45]

According to demographer Pini Herman, this circular migration has been an economic boon to Israel. Israel does not have the technological, academic, and other infrastructural resources to absorb its disproportionate number of highly trained and skilled population, second only to the United States. As a result, many Israelis have worked overseas for extended periods of time. Upon their return, they have often attracted or repatriated with them to Israel new infrastructure, such as that provided by companies like as Intel, Google, Microsoft, and IBM.[42]

Emigration and Zionist ideology

The rejection of emigration from Israel is a central assumption in all forms of Zionism as a corollary of the "Negation of the Diaspora" in Zionism which according to Eliezer Schweid was a central tenet of Israeli Zionist education until the 1970s when there was a need for Israel to reconcile itself with the Jewish diaspora and its massive support of Israel following the Six-Day War.[46]

Attitudes in Israeli society

Emigration and Israeli politics

Emigration and anti-Zionism

Reaction of Jewish diaspora communities

People in the community seem to take pride in Teaneck's high rate of Aliyah to Israel. It's certainly something to be proud of. But we make no mention of the equally high rates (maybe even higher rates) of "yerida" from Israel to Teaneck. My feeling is these 'yordim' should not be accorded honors in our synagogues or schools. These people are the antithesis of what we want to teach our children, of how we want to live. For most religious Zionists, of which Teaneck has more than a few, the goal is to end up in Israel. Having "yordim" as community leaders here is bad public policy. Recently, one of the largest synagogues in town installed a "yored" as its president. Our schools honor "yordim" on a regular basis at their dinners. "Yordim" make up a large percentage of our school's Hebrew teachers.[71]

Israeli emigrants in the Diaspora

United States

Main article: Israeli American

Israelis tend to be disproportionately Jewishly active in their diaspora communities, creating and participating formal and informal organizations, participating in diaspora Jewish religious institutions and sending their children to Jewish education providers at a greater rate than local diaspora Jews.[69]

In Los Angeles a Council of Israeli Community was founded in 2001.[72] In Los Angeles an Israel Leadership Club was organized and has been active in support activities for Israel, most recently in 2008, it sponsored with the local Jewish Federation and Israeli consulate a concert in support for the embattled population suffering rocket attacks of Sderot, Israel where the three frontrunners for the U.S. president, Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, John McCain greeted the attendees by video and expressed their support for the residents of Sderot. An Israeli Business Network of Beverly Hills has existed since 1996.[73] The Israeli-American Study Initiative (IASI), a start-up project based at the UCLA International Institute, is set out to document the lives and times of Israeli Americans—initially focusing on those in Los Angeles and eventually throughout the United States.[74]

A variety of Hebrew language websites,[75] newspapers and magazines are published in South Florida, New York,[76][77][78][79] Los Angeles[80][81] and other U.S. regions.[82] The Israeli Channel along with two other Hebrew-language channels are available via satellite broadcast nationally in the United States.[83] Hebrew language Israeli programming on local television was broadcast in New York and Los Angeles during the 1990s, prior to Hebrew language satellite broadcast. Live performances by Israeli artists are a regular occurrence in centers of Israeli emigrants in the U.S. and Canada with audience attendance often in the hundreds.[84] An Israeli Independence Day Festival has taken place yearly in Los Angeles since 1990 with thousands of Israeli emigrants and American Jews.[85]


Main article: Israeli Canadian


Main article: Olim L'Berlin

Both the Jewish and Israeli community in Germany are growing. Named Olim L'Berlin (Hebrew: עולים לברלין, progress towards Berlin) 2014 a Facebook website coined a snowclone and the so-called 'pudding or milky protest' in Israel, as the prices for comparable household items in Germany are rather low in comparison.[87] Israeli Band Shmemels' song parodying Jerusalem of Gold with the notion, 'Jacob went down to Egypt, because the rent was a third and salaries double - Reichstag of Peace, Euro and Light' grew as well famous in the context.[87] According to Haaretz, the conflict is less about pudding prices but about the now shattered taboo of Yerida, emigrating from Israel.[88]

The fact that Germany was chosen as the destination struck a raw nerve across the social and political spectrum, considering Israel's founding in 1948 in the wake of the Holocaust,[89] its large population of Holocaust survivors, and the many citizens who still refuse to buy products made in Germany.[90] Agriculture Minister Yair Shamir stated, "I pity the Israelis who no longer remember the Holocaust and abandoned Israel for a pudding".[91]


Main article: Israeli Australian

See also


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