xwd runs in one of two ways: if a user specifies the whole screen or the name or identifier of a window as an argument, the program captures the content of the window; otherwise, it changes the shape of the cursor and waits for the user to click in a window, whose content is then captured.
At the X Window core protocol level, xwd uses the fact that any X client can request the content of an arbitrary window, including ones it did not create, using the
GetImage request (this is done by the
XGetImage function in the Xlib library). The content of the whole screen is obtained by requesting the content of the root window.
$ xwd | xwdtopnm | pnmtopng > Screenshot.png
|Developed by||X Window System|
|Initial release||X10 / 1985|
(September 1987 )
|Type of format||Image file formats|
|Open format?||MIT license|
Various image viewers and tools support the X11
.xwd format, among others the GIMP, ImageMagick, Netpbm, and XnView. In version 2.1.4 FFmpeg supported pixel formats bgra, rgba, argb, abgr, rgb24, bgr24, rgb565be, rgb565le, bgr565be, bgr565le, rgb555be, rgb555le, bgr555be, bgr555le, rgb8, bgr8, rgb4_byte, bgr4_byte, pal8, gray, and monow. In these abbreviations 555 means 32768=32×32×32 colors, 565 means 65536 colors (6 bits for green), rgba is red-green-blue-alpha, 4 or 8 stands for 16 or 256 colors, le or be is the endianess, pal is an input palette, etc. as listed by
Details of the
.xwd format in
xwdfile.h depend on the platform, therefore it is unsuited for cross-platform applications and has no MIME image type.
- Tyler, Chris (2008). X Power Tools. O'Reilly Series. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 107. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
The X window dump (xwd) tool takes a snapshot of the current screen, a manually selected window or a window designated by its numeric ID, and outputs the image to standard output or to a file.
- James D. Murray, William vanRyper (April 1996). "Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats, Second Edition". O'Reilly. ISBN 1-56592-161-5. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Image Formats". FFmpeg General Documentation. 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
- xwd is part of X11's standard distribution, but its source can also be downloaded separately as tar.bz2 or tar.gz
- Image::XWD Perl package at CPAN