The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.[1] It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.

SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.



Lower case symbols

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description Examples
a a open front unrounded vowel French dame [dam], Spanish padre ["paD4e]
b b voiced bilabial plosive English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ voiced bilabial implosive Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
c c voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian latyak ["lQcQk]
d d voiced alveolar plosive English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ voiced retroflex plosive Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ voiced alveolar implosive Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
e e close-mid front unrounded vowel French ses [se], American English mate [met]
f f voiceless labiodental fricative English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
g a voiced velar plosive English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ voiced velar implosive Sindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
h h voiceless glottal fricative English house [haUs]
h\ f voiced glottal fricative Czech hrad [h\rat]
i i close front unrounded vowel English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j palatal approximant English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\ ʝ voiced palatal fricative Greek γειά [j\a]
k k voiceless velar plosive English scat [sk{t], Spanish carro ["kar:o]
l l alveolar lateral approximant English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l` ɭ retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l\ ɺ alveolar lateral flap Japanese rakuten [l\akM_0teN\]
m ɭ bilabial nasal English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
n n alveolar nasal English nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n` ɳ retroflex nasal Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
o o close-mid back rounded vowel French gros [gRo]
p p voiceless bilabial plosive English speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro ["per:o]
p\ ɸ voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
q q voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah ["qQs_Gba]
r r alveolar trill Spanish perro ["per:o]
r` ɽ retroflex flap  
r\ ɹ alveolar approximant English red [r\Ed]
r\` ɻ retroflex approximant Malayalam വഴി ["v@r\`i]
s ɳ voiceless alveolar fricative English seem [si:m], French session [se"sjO~]
s` ʂ voiceless retroflex fricative Swedish mars [mas`]
s\ ɕ voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish świerszcz [s\v'erStS]
t t voiceless alveolar plosive English stew [stju:], French raté [Ra"te], Spanish tuyo ["tujo]
t` ʈ voiceless retroflex plosive Swedish mört [m2t`]
u u close back rounded vowel English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v voiced labiodental fricative English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P) ʋ labiodental approximant Dutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
w w labial-velar approximant English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
x ɸ voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lOx] or [5Ox]; German Buch, Dach; Spanish caja, gestión
x\ ɧ voiceless palatal-velar fricative Swedish sjal [x\A:l]
y ɹ close front rounded vowel French tu [ty] German über ["y:b6]
z ɺ voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zu:], French azote [a"zOt]
z` ʐ voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ ʑ voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish źrebak ["z\rEbak]

Capital symbols

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description Example
A ɑ open back unrounded vowel English father ["fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β voiced bilabial fricative Spanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ ʙ bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
C ç voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], English human ["Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð voiced dental fricative English then [DEn]
E ɛ open-mid front unrounded vowel French même [mEm], English met [mEt] (RP and Gen.Am.)
F q labiodental nasal English emphasis ["EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G c voiced velar fricative Greek γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge ["vElG@]
G\ b voiced uvular plosive Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_< ʛ voiced uvular implosive Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
H e labial-palatal approximant French huit [Hit]
H\ ʜ voiceless epiglottal fricative  
I j near-close near-front unrounded vowel English kit [kIt]
I\ ɻ or ɪ̈   near-close central unrounded vowel Polish ryba [rI\bA] 
J r palatal nasal Spanish año ["aJo], English canyon ["k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ ɟ voiced palatal plosive Hungarian egy [EJ\]
J\_< ʄ voiced palatal implosive Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
K l voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU]
K\ n voiced alveolar lateral fricative  
L ʎ palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [fa"miLLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], English million ["mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\ ʟ velar lateral approximant
M o close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M\ p velar approximant Spanish fuego ["fweM\o]
N ŋ velar nasal English thing [TIN]
N\ t uvular nasal Japanese san [saN\]
O ɔ open-mid back rounded vowel RP thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O\ ʘ bilabial click  
P (or v\) ʋ labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
Q ɒ open back rounded vowel RP lot [lQt]
R ʁ voiced uvular fricative German rein [RaIn]
R\ ʀ uvular trill French roi [R\wa]
S ʃ voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp]
T θ voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn]
U ʊ near-close near-back rounded vowel English foot [fUt]
U\ ᵿ or ʊ̈ near-close central rounded vowel English euphoria [jU\"fO@r\i@]
V ʌ open-mid back unrounded vowel RP English strut [str\Vt]
W ʍ voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
X χ voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\ ħ voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Y ʏ near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ voiced postalveolar fricative English vision ["vIZ@n]

Other symbols

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description Example
. . syllable break  
" ˈ primary stress  
% ˌ secondary stress  
' (or _j) β palatalized  
: ː long  
:\ ˑ half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-   separator Polish trzy [t-S1] vs. czy [tS1] (affricate)
@ ə schwa English arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ ɘ close-mid central unrounded vowel Paicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
{ æ near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr\{p]
} ʉ close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1 h close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American English rose's ["r\oUz1z]
2 ø close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe ["k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3 ɜ open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ ɞ open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail [t3\:l']
4 ɾ alveolar flap Spanish pero ["pe4o], American English better ["bE4@`]
5 k velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k], Portuguese livro ["5iv4u]
6 ɐ near-open central vowel German besser ["bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7 d close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Vietnamese mơ [m7_M]
8 u close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9 ɓ open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& v open front rounded vowel Swedish skörd [x\&d`]
? ʔ glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney English bottle ["bQ?l]
?\ ʕ voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
*   undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor"  
/   indeterminacy in French vowels  
<   begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
<\ ʢ voiced epiglottal fricative  
>   end nonsegmental notation  
>\ ʡ epiglottal plosive  
^ upstep  
! downstep  
!\ ǃ postalveolar click  
| | minor (foot) group  
|\ ǀ dental click  
|| major (intonation) group  
|\|\ ǁ alveolar lateral click  
=\ ǂ palatal click  
-\ linking mark  


X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description
_"   ̈ centralized
_+   ̟ advanced
_-   ̠ retracted
_/ ̌ rising tone
_0   ̥ voiceless
_<   implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩ syllabic
_> ʼ ejective
_?\ ˤ pharyngealized
_\ ̂   falling tone
_^   ̯ non-syllabic
_}   ̚ no audible release
` ˞ rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃ nasalization
_A   ̘ advanced tongue root
_a   ̺ apical
_B   ̏ extra low tone
_B_L   low rising tone
_c   ̜ less rounded
_d   ̪ dental
_e   ̴ velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F> global fall
_F   ̂ falling tone
_G ˠ velarized
_H   ́ high tone
_H_T   high rising tone
_h ʰ aspirated
_j (or ') β palatalized
_k   ̰ creaky voice
_L   ̀ low tone
_l ˡ lateral release
_M   ̄ mid tone
_m   ̻ laminal
_N   ̼ linguolabial
_n ᵿ nasal release
_O   ̹ more rounded
_o   ̞ lowered
_q   ̙ retracted tongue root
<R> global rise
_R   ̌ rising tone
_R_F   rising falling tone
_r   ̝ raised
_T   ̋ extra high tone
_t   ̤ breathy voice
_v   ̬ voiced
_w ʷ labialized
_X   ̆ extra-short
_x   ̽ mid-centralized



Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Manner of articulation Bilabial Labio‐
Dental Alveolar Post‐
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn‐
Nasal    m    F    n    n`    J    N    N\  
Plosive p b p_d b_d t d t` d` c J\ k g q G\   >\ ?  
Fricative p\ B f v T D s z S Z s` z` C j\ x G X R X\ ?\ H\ <\ h h\
Approximant    B_o    v\    r\    r\`    j    M\      
Trill    B\    r    *    R\    *  
Tap or Flap    *    *    4    r`          *  
Lateral Fricative K K\ *    *    *       
Lateral Approximant    l    l`    L    L\  
Lateral Flap      l\    *    *    *    
W Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
H Voiced labialized palatal approximant
s\ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
ts voiceless alveolar affricate
dz voiced alveolar affricate
tS voiceless postalveolar affricate
dZ voiced postalveolar affricate
ts\ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tK voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kp voiceless labial-velar plosive
gb voiced labial-velar plosive
Nm labial-velar nasal stop
Consonants (non-pulmonic)
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
O\ Bilabial b_< Bilabial _> For example:
|\ Laminal alveolar ("dental") d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial
ǃ\ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal t_> Alveolar
=\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_< Velar k_> Velar
|\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_< Uvular s_> Alveolar fricative


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
i  y
1  }
M  u
I  Y
I\  U\
e  2
@\  8
7  o
E  9
3  3\
V  O
a  &
A  Q

See also


  1. Wells, J.C. "Computer-coding the IPA: a proposed extension of SAMPA" (PDF). UCL Phonetics and Linguistics. University College London. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 9/6/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.