Wozzeck (German pronunciation: [ˈvɔtsɛk]) is the first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg. It was composed between 1914 and 1922 and first performed in 1925. The opera is based on the drama Woyzeck, which was left incomplete by the German playwright Georg Büchner at his death. Berg attended the first production in Vienna of Büchner's play on 5 May 1914, and knew at once that he wanted to base an opera on it. From the fragments of unordered scenes left by Büchner, Berg selected fifteen to form a compact structure of three acts with five scenes each. He adapted the libretto himself, retaining "the essential character of the play, with its many short scenes, its abrupt and sometimes brutal language, and its stark, if haunted, realism..."
The plot depicts the everyday life of soldiers and the townspeople of a rural German-speaking town. Prominent themes of militarism, callousness, social exploitation, and a casual sadism are brutally and uncompromisingly presented. Toward the end of act 1, scene 2, the title character (Wozzeck) murmurs, "Still, all is still, as if the world died.", with his fellow soldier Andres uttering, "Night! We must get back!", seemingly oblivious to Wozzeck's previous words. The dialogue is concluded and a funeral march begins, only to transform into the upbeat song of the military marching band in the next scene. Musicologist Glenn Watkins considers this, "as vivid a projection of impending world doom as any to come out of the Great War ... "
Though Berg began work on the opera in 1914, he was delayed by the start of World War I and it was not until he was on leave from his regiment in 1917 and 1918 that he was able to devote time to finishing it. Berg's experience of the war had a pronounced impact on the compositional direction of Wozzeck. In a letter to his wife written in June 1918, he wrote, "There is a little bit of me in his character, since I have been spending these war years just as dependent on people I hate, have been in chains, sick, captive, resigned, in fact, humiliated." His correspondence and notebooks dating from the war years reveal a painful obsession with completing Wozzeck.
Compositional sketches and notes for both Wozzeck and the Marsch of Three Pieces for Orchestra that Berg made during the war are strewn with disjointed fragments of military ordinances and terminology. In a draft page of the act 1, scene 2 libretto, Berg included notations in the dialogue that refer to Austrian army bugle calls. These military signals were later inserted into the score in a modified slightly atonal form, but still likely recognizable to Austrian audiences of the period. The scene of snoring soldiers in the barracks during act 2, scene 5 was influenced by Berg's similar such experience: "... this polyphonic breathing, gasping, and groaning is the most peculiar chorus I've ever heard. It is like some primeval music that wells up from the abysses of the soul ..."
In 1916, however, he devoted himself to attaining the rank of Einjährig-Freiwillige Korporal (Corporal), which he did later that year. During this period, as Berg wrote to his wife, "For months I haven't done any work on Wozzeck. Everything suffocated. Buried!" Finishing act 1 by the summer of 1919, act 2 in August 1921, and the final act during the following two months (with orchestration finalized over the following six months), Berg completed Wozzeck in April 1922. For the climactic section, Berg used one of his old student pieces in D minor. A typical performance of the work takes slightly over an hour and a half.
Erich Kleiber, "who programmed (the opera) on his own initiative", conducted the world premiere at the Berlin State Opera on 14 December 1925. Walsh claims that it was "a succès de scandale with disturbances during the performance and a mixed press afterwards, but it led to a stream of productions in Germany and Austria, before the Nazis consigned it to the dustbin of 'decadent art' after 1933". Initially, Wozzeck established a solid place for itself in the mainstream operatic tradition and quickly became so well-established in the repertoire of the major European opera houses that Berg found himself able to live a comfortable life off the royalties. He spent a good deal of his time through the 1920s and 30s travelling to attend performances and to give talks about the opera.
Arnold Schoenberg's former pupil, the conductor and BBC programme planner Edward Clark, produced a broadcast of fragments of the work in a studio concert on 13 May 1932, with the BBC Symphony Orchestra under Sir Henry Wood. On 14 March 1934 in the Queen's Hall, Adrian Boult conducted a complete concert performance of Wozzeck, again produced by Edward Clark. The opera was given its first British staged performance at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, on 22 January 1952.
Musical style and structure
Wozzeck is generally regarded as the first opera produced in the 20th-century avant-garde style and is also one of the most famous examples of employing atonality (music that avoids establishing a key) and Sprechgesang. Berg was following in the footsteps of his teacher, Arnold Schoenberg, by using free atonality to express emotions and even the thought processes of the characters on the stage. The expression of madness and alienation was amplified with atonal music.
Though the music is atonal in the sense that it does not follow the techniques of the major/minor tonality system dominant in the West during the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, the piece is written with other methods for controlling pitch to direct the harmonic flow. The tritone B–F, for example, represents Wozzeck and Marie, permanently in a struggle with one another. The combination of B♭ and D♭ (a minor third) represents the link between Marie and the child. In this way, the opera continually returns to certain pitches to mark out key moments in the plot. This is not the same as a key center, but over time the repetition of these pitches establishes continuity and structure.
Berg uses a variety of musical techniques to create unity and coherence in the opera. The first is the use of leitmotifs. As with most composers who have used this method, each leitmotif is used in a much more subtle manner than being directly attached to a character or object. Even so, motifs for the Captain, the Doctor and the Drum Major are very prominent. Wozzeck is clearly associated with two motifs, one often heard as he rushes on or off stage, the other more languidly expressing his misery and helplessness in the face of the pressures he experiences. Marie is accompanied by motifs that express her sensuality, as when she accepts a pair of earrings from the Drum Major (an act that indicates that her submission to the 'rape' at the end of act 1 was not so reluctant). A motif that is not explicitly linked with a physical object would be the pair of chords that are used to close each of the three acts, used in an oscillating repetition until they almost blur into one another.
The most significant motif is first heard sung by Wozzeck himself (in the first scene with the Captain), to the words "Wir arme Leut" (poor folk like us). Tracing out a minor chord with added major seventh, it is frequently heard as the signal of the inability of the opera's characters to transcend their situation.
Beyond this, Berg also reuses motifs from set pieces heard earlier in the opera to give us an insight into the character's thoughts. The reappearance of military band music, as in the last scene of act 1, for example, informs the audience that Marie is musing on the Drum Major's physical desirability.
An almost imperceptible leitmotif is the single pitch B, symbolizing the murder. It is first heard pp at the very end of act 2, after Wozzeck's humiliation, after his words "Einer nach dem andern..." (one at a time), and grows more and more insistent during the murder scene, with Marie's last cry for help a two-octave jump from B5 to B3, until after the murder, when the whole orchestra explodes through a prolonged crescendo on this single pitch, first in unison on B3, then spread across the whole range of the orchestra in octaves.
Berg decided against the use of the classic operatic forms such as aria or trio for this opera. Instead, each scene is given its own inner coherence by the use of forms more normally associated with abstract instrumental music. The second scene of act 2 (during which the Doctor and Captain taunt Wozzeck about Marie's infidelity), for instance, consists of a prelude and triple fugue. The fourth scene of act 1, focusing on Wozzeck and the Doctor, is a set of passacaglia variations.
The various scenes of the third act move beyond these structures and adopt novel strategies. Each scene is a set of variations, but where the term "variation" normally indicates that there is a melody undergoing variation, Berg identifies different musical elements for "variation". Thus, scene two is a variation on a single note, B♮, which is heard continuously in the scene, and the only note heard in the powerful orchestral crescendos at the end of act 2, scene 2. Scene 3 is a variation on a rhythmic pattern, with every major thematic element constructed around this pattern. Scene 4 is a variation on a chord, used exclusively for the whole scene. The following orchestral interlude is a freely composed passage that is firmly grounded in the key of D minor. Finally, the last scene is a moto perpetuum, a variation on a single rhythm (the quaver).
The table below summarizes the dramatic action and forms as prepared by Fritz Mahler.
|Expositions||Act 1||Five character pieces|
|Wozzeck and the Captain||Scene 1||Suite|
|Wozzeck and Andres||Scene 2||Rhapsody|
|Wozzeck and Marie||Scene 3||Military March and Lullaby|
|Wozzeck and the Doctor||Scene 4||Passacaglia|
|Wozzeck and the Drum Major||Scene 5||Andante affettuoso (quasi Rondo)|
|Dramatic development||Act 2||Symphony in five movements|
|Marie and her child, later Wozzeck||Scene 1||Sonata movement|
|The Captain and the Doctor, later Wozzeck||Scene 2||Fantasia and fugue|
|Marie and Wozzeck||Scene 3||Largo|
|Garden of a tavern||Scene 4||Scherzo|
|Garden room in the barracks||Scene 5||Rondo con introduzione|
|Catastrophe and epilogue||Act 3||Six inventions|
|Marie and her child||Scene 1||Invention on a theme|
|Marie and Wozzeck||Scene 2||Invention on a note (B♮)|
|Tavern||Scene 3||Invention on a rhythm|
|Death of Wozzeck||Scene 4||Invention on a hexachord|
|Interlude||Invention on a key (D minor)|
|Children playing||Scene 5||Invention on a regular quaver movement|
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 14 December 1925|
(Conductor: Erich Kleiber)
|Marie, his common-law wife||soprano||Sigrid Johanson|
|Captain||buffo tenor||Waldemar Henke|
|Doctor||buffo bass||Martin Abendroth|
|Drum Major||heldentenor||Fritz Soot|
|Andres, Wozzeck's friend||lyric tenor||Gerhard Witting|
|Margret, Marie's neighbor||contralto||Jessika Koettrik|
|First Apprentice||deep bass|
|Second Apprentice||high baritone|
|Soldiers, apprentices, women, children|
Scene 1 (Suite)
Wozzeck is shaving the Captain who lectures him on the qualities of a "decent man" and taunts him for living an immoral life. Wozzeck slavishly replies, "Jawohl, Herr Hauptmann" ("Yes sir, Captain") repeatedly to the Captain's abuse. However, when the Captain scorns Wozzeck for having a child "without the blessing of the Church", Wozzeck protests that it is difficult to be virtuous when he is poor, but entreats the Captain to remember the lesson from the gospel, "Lasset die Kleinen zu mir kommen!" ("Suffer the little children to come unto me," Mark 10:14). The Captain is confounded by Wozzeck's theological knowledge and anxiously squeaks, "What do you mean? And what sort of curious answer is that? You make me quite confused!" After Wozzeck continues the discussion by positing that it would be easy to be moral, if only he were wealthy; and that, if the poor ever "got to Heaven, we'd all have to manufacture thunder!" The flustered Captain, unable to comprehend Wozzeck, finally concedes that he is "a decent man, only you think too much!" The Captain concludes the discussion, saying it has "quite fatigued" him and again chides Wozzeck to walk slowly before finally exiting.
Scene 2 (Rhapsody and Hunting Song)
Wozzeck and Andres are cutting sticks as the sun is setting. Wozzeck has frightening visions and Andres tries unsuccessfully to calm him.
Scene 3 (March and Lullaby)
A military parade passes by outside Marie's room. Margret taunts Marie for flirting with the soldiers. Marie shuts the window and proceeds to sing a lullaby to her son. Wozzeck then comes by and tells Marie of the terrible visions he has had, promptly leaving without seeing their son, much to Marie's dismay. She laments about being poor.
Scene 4 (Passacaglia)
The Doctor scolds Wozzeck for not following his instructions regarding diet and behavior. However, when the Doctor hears of Wozzeck's mental aberrations, he is delighted and congratulates himself on the success of his experiment.
Scene 5 (Rondo)
Marie admires the Drum Major outside her room. He makes advances to her, which she first rejects but then accepts after a short struggle.
Scene 1 (Sonata-Allegro)
Marie is telling her child to go to sleep while admiring earrings which the Drum Major gave her. She is startled when Wozzeck arrives and when he asks where she got the earrings, she says she found them. Though not convinced, Wozzeck gives her some money and leaves. Marie chastises herself for her behavior.
Scene 2 (Fantasia and Fugue on 3 Themes)
The Doctor rushes by the Captain in the street, who urges him to slow down. The Doctor then proceeds to scare the Captain by speculating what afflictions may strike him. When Wozzeck comes by, they insinuate that Marie is being unfaithful to him.
Scene 3 (Largo)
Wozzeck confronts Marie, who does not deny his suspicions. Enraged, Wozzeck is about to hit her, when she stops him, saying even her father never dared lay a hand on her. Her statement "better a knife in my belly than your hands on me" plants in Wozzeck's mind the idea for his subsequent revenge.
Scene 4 (Scherzo)
Among a crowd, Wozzeck sees Marie dancing with the Drum Major. After a brief hunter's chorus, Andres asks Wozzeck why he is sitting by himself. An Apprentice delivers a drunken sermon, then an Idiot approaches Wozzeck and cries out that the scene is "Lustig, lustig...aber es riecht ...Ich riech, ich riech Blut!" ("joyful, joyful, but it reeks...I smell, I smell blood").
Scene 5 (Rondo)
In the barracks at night, Wozzeck, unable to sleep, is keeping Andres awake. The Drum Major comes in, intoxicated, and rouses Wozzeck out of bed to fight with him.
Scene 1 (Invention on a Theme)
In her room at night, Marie reads to herself from the Bible. She cries out that she wants forgiveness.
Scene 2 (Invention on a Single Note (B))
Wozzeck and Marie are walking in the woods by a pond. Marie is anxious to leave, but Wozzeck restrains her. As a blood-red moon rises, Wozzeck becomes determined that if he can't have Marie, no one else can, and he stabs her.
Scene 3 (Invention on a Rhythm)
People are dancing in a tavern. Wozzeck enters, and upon seeing Margret, dances with her and pulls her onto his lap. He insults her, and then asks her to sing him a song. She sings, but then notices blood on his hand and elbow; everyone begins shouting at him, and Wozzeck, now agitated and obsessed with his blood, rushes out of the tavern.
Scene 4 (Invention on a 6-Note Chord)
Having returned to the murder scene, Wozzeck becomes obsessed with the thought that the knife he killed Marie with will incriminate him, and throws it into the pond. When the blood-red moon appears again, Wozzeck, fearing that he has not thrown the knife far enough from shore and also wanting to wash away the blood staining his clothing and hands, wades into the pond and drowns. The Captain and the Doctor, passing by, hear Wozzeck moaning and rush off in fright.
Interlude (Invention on a Key (D minor))
This interlude leads to the finale.
Scene 5 (Invention on an Eighth-Note moto perpetuo, quasi toccata)
Next morning, children are playing in the sunshine. The news spreads that Marie's body has been found, and they all run off to see, except for Marie's little boy, who after an oblivious moment, follows after the others.
Berg scores for a fairly large orchestra in Wozzeck, and has three onstage ensembles in addition to the large orchestra (a marching band in act 1, scene 3, a chamber orchestra in act 2, scene 3, a tavern band in act 2, scene 4 as well as an upright piano for act 3, scene 3). The instrumentation of the work is as follows:
- Woodwinds: 4 flutes (all double piccolos), 4 oboes (4th doubles English horn), 4 Clarinets in B-Flat (1st doubles Clarinet in A, 3rd and 4th double clarinets in E-flat), bass clarinet in B-flat, 3 bassoons, contrabassoon
- Brass: 4 horns in F, 4 trumpets in F, 4 trombones (1 alto, 2 tenor, 1 bass), tuba
- Percussion: 4 timpani, bass drum, several cymbals (a pair, suspended, and one attached to the bass drum), bass drum (with switch), snare drum, 2 tam-tams (one smaller than the other), triangle, xylophone
- Keyboards: celesta
- Strings: harp, first and second violins, violas, violoncellos, double basses
Marching band (act 1, scene 3):
- Woodwinds: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in E-flat, 2 bassoons
- Brass: 2 horns in F, 2 trumpets in F, 3 trombones, tuba
- Percussion: Bass drum with cymbals, snare drum, triangle
In his instructions, Berg says the players in the marching band may be taken from the main orchestra, and even goes so far as to indicate exactly where the players can leave with a footnote near the end of act 1, scene 2.)
Tavern band (act 2, scene 4):
- Woodwinds: clarinet in C
- Brass: bombardon in F (or tuba, if it can be muted)
- Keyboard: accordion
- Strings: guitar, 2 fiddles (violins with steel strings)
Act 3, scene 3: Upright out-of-tune piano
In addition to the above groups, which appear on stage, Berg also asks for a chamber orchestra in act 2, scene 3, which should if possible be composed of additional players, and separated from the main pit orchestra. The instrumentation explicitly matches that of Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony No. 1:
- Woodwinds: flute (doubling piccolo), oboe, English horn, clarinet in E-flat, clarinet in A, bass clarinet in B-flat, bassoon, contrabassoon
- Brass: 2 horns
- Strings: 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double bass
Different versions and others with the same title
There are several different versions of Wozzeck in the opera repertoire, apart from Berg's own. Wozzeck by German composer Manfred Gurlitt, also based on Büchner's play, was first performed four months after Berg's work. Gurlitt's composition, which was created without any knowledge of Berg's, has remained in its shadow.
Arrangement's of Berg's setting include one for twenty-two singers and twenty-one instrumental parts by the Canadian composer John Rea, and one for a reduced orchestra of about 60 players for smaller theatres by composer and fellow Schoenberg-student Erwin Stein in collaboration with Berg.
- Alban Berg: Wozzeck – Franz Hawlata (Baritone), Angela Denoke (Soprano), Reiner Goldberg (Heldertenor), Vivian Tierney (Contralto), Johann Tilli (Buffo Bass), Hubert Delamboye (Buffo Tenor), Vivaldi Chorus; IPSI; Petits Cantors de Catalunya; Orchestra & Chorus of the Gran Teatre del Liceu; Sebastian Weigle Stage Director: Calixto Bieito, Barcelona, 2006. Label: Opus Arte.
- Walsh, pp. 61–63
- Hall, Patricia (2011-06-09). Berg's Wozzeck. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–38. ISBN 9780195342611. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
- Watkins, Glenn (2002). Proof Through the Night: Music and the Great War. University of California Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780520927896. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
- Rose, Michael (2013-03-18). The Birth of an Opera: Fifteen Masterpieces from Poppea to Wozzeck. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 375. ISBN 9780393060430. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
- Ross, p. 530
- Nicholas Chadwick, "Alban Berg and the BBC"
- Music Web International: "Memories of the Warlock Circle"
- Pople 1997, p. 148
- "Alban Berg – Wozzeck – Reduzierte Fassung (21 instrumente) – John Rea". Universal Edition. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- "Alban Berg – Wozzeck – reduced version (Stein)", Universal Edition. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- Simms, p. 36
- Ross, Alex (2008). The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (1st Picador ed.). New York: Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-42771-9.
- Pople, Anthony. The Cambridge Companion to Berg. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521563747.
- Simms, Bryan R. (1996), Alban Berg: A Guide to Research, Routledge.
- Walsh, Stephen (2001), "Alban Berg" in Holden, Amanda, ed. The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc. ISBN 0-14-029312-4
- Adorno, Theodor W. (1991), Alban Berg: Master of the Smallest Link. Trans. Juliane Brand and Christopher Hailey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33016-5
- Hall, Patricia (2011), "Berg's Wozzeck". Studies in Musical Genesis, Structure, and Interpretation. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534261-1 | www.oup.com/us/bergswozzeck; Username: Music2 Password: Book4416 (accessed 29 October 2012)
- Jarman, Douglas (1979), The Music of Alban Berg. London and Boston: Faber & Faber ISBN 0-571-10956-X ; Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03485-6
- Jarman, Douglas (1989), "Alban Berg, Wozzeck". Cambridge Opera Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24151-0 (cloth) ISBN 0-521-28481-3 (pbk)
- Perle, George (1980), The Operas of Alban Berg, Vol 1: "Wozzeck". Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03440-6
- Schmalfeldt, Janet (1983), "Berg's Wozzeck", Harmonic Language and Dramatic Design. New Haven: Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-02710-9
- Media related to Wozzeck at Wikimedia Commons
- How does Berg use Sprechgesang in Wozzeck? (The Royal Opera) on YouTube