Western canon

Dante, Homer and Virgil in Raphael's Parnassus fresco (1511), key figures in the Western canon

The Western canon is the body of books, music, and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture. It includes works of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as being of major artistic merit and representing the high culture of Europe and North America. Philosopher John Searle suggests that the Western canon can be roughly defined as "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".[1]

The canon of books, including Western literature and Western philosophy, has perhaps been most stable, although expanding to include more women and racial minorities, while the canons of music and the visual arts have greatly expanded to cover the Middle Ages and other periods, once largely overlooked. Some examples of newer media such as cinema have attained a precarious position in the canon.

There has been an ongoing debate over the nature and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted in critical theory, feminism, critical race theory, and Marxism.[2] In particular, postmodern studies have argued that the body of scholarship is biased because the traditional main focus of academic studies of Western culture and history has only been on works produced by European men.

A classic

In painting, the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–1506, is the archetypal masterpiece, though it was not produced for admission to a guild or academy.

A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion. Although the term is often associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature, music and art, etc. from all traditions, such as the Chinese classics or the Indian Vedas. A related word is masterpiece or chef d'œuvre, which in modern use refers to a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, or workmanship. Historically, the word refers to a work of a very high standard produced in order to obtain membership of a Guild or Academy.

The first "classic" writer was Aulus Gellius, a 2nd-century Roman writer who, in the miscellany Noctes Atticae (19, 8, 15), refers to a writer as a Classicus scriptor, non proletarius ("A distinguished, not a commonplace writer"). Such classification began with the Greeks’ ranking their cultural works, with the word canon ("carpenter’s rule"). Moreover, early Christian Church Fathers used canon to rank the authoritative texts of the New Testament, preserving them, given the expense of vellum and papyrus and mechanical book reproduction, thus, being comprehended in a canon ensured a book’s preservation as the best way to retain information about a civilization. Contemporarily, the Western canon defines the best of Western culture. In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Library, scholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes ("the admitted", "the included") to identify the writers in the canon.


There has been an ongoing debate over the nature and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted in critical theory, feminism, critical race theory, and Marxism.[2] In particular postmodern studies has argued that the body of scholarship is biased, because the main focus traditionally of the academic studies of history and Western culture, has only been on Europe and men. English professor Jay Stevenson argues:

[In] the postmodern period […] [t]raditional literature has been found to have been written by "dead white males" to serve the ideological aims of a conservative and repressive Anglo hegemony […] In an array of reactions against the race, gender, and class biases found to be woven into the tradition of Anglo lit, multicultural writers and political literary theorists have sought to expose, resist, and redress injustices and prejudices.[3]

Classicist Bernard Knox made direct reference to this topic when he delivered his 1992 Jefferson Lecture (the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities).[4] Knox used the intentionally "provocative" title "The Oldest Dead White European Males",[5] as the title of his lecture and his subsequent book of the same name, in both of which Knox defended the continuing relevance of classical culture to modern society.[6][7]

Some intellectuals have championed a "high conservative modernism" that insists that universal truths exist, and have opposed approaches that deny the existence of universal truths.[8] Many argued that "natural law" was the repository of timeless truths.[9] Allan Bloom, in his highly influential Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students (1987) argues that moral degradation results from ignorance of the great classics that shaped Western culture. Bloom further comments: "But one thing is certain: wherever the Great Books make up a central part of the curriculum, the students are excited and satisfied."[10] His book was widely cited by some intellectuals for its argument that the classics contained universal truths and timeless values which were being ignored by cultural relativists.[11][12] Yale University Professor of Humanities and famous literary critic Harold Bloom (no relation) has also argued strongly in favor of the canon, in his 1995 book The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages, and in general the canon remains as a represented idea in many institutions,[1] though its implications continue to be debated.

Defenders maintain that those who undermine the canon do so out of primarily political interests, and that such criticisms are misguided and/or disingenuous. As John Searle has written:

There is a certain irony in this [i.e., politicized objections to the canon] in that earlier student generations, my own for example, found the critical tradition that runs from Socrates through the Federalist Papers, through the writings of Mill and Marx, down to the twentieth century, to be liberating from the stuffy conventions of traditional American politics and pieties. Precisely by inculcating a critical attitude, the "canon" served to demythologize the conventional pieties of the American bourgeoisie and provided the student with a perspective from which to critically analyze American culture and institutions. Ironically, the same tradition is now regarded as oppressive. The texts once served an unmasking function; now we are told that it is the texts which must be unmasked.[1]

One of the main objections to a canon of literature is the question of authority; who should have the power to determine what works are worth reading? Searle's rebuttal suggests that "one obvious difficulty with it [i.e., arguments against hierarchical ranking of books] is that if it were valid, it would argue against any set of required readings whatever; indeed, any list you care to make about anything automatically creates two categories, those that are on the list and those that are not."[1]

Charles Altieri states that canons are "an institutional form for exposing people to a range of idealized attitudes." It is according to this notion that work may be removed from the canon over time to reflect the contextual relevance and thoughts of society.[13]

Classical music

Clara Schumann, (1819 – 1896), was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.[14]

The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age.[15] The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.[16]

In classical music, during the nineteenth century a "canon" developed which focussed on what was felt to be the most important works written since 1600, with a great concentration on the later part of this period, termed the Classical period, which is generally taken to begin around 1730. In the 2000s, the standard concert repertoire of professional orchestras, chamber music groups and choirs tends to focus on works by a relatively small number of mainly 18th and 19th century male composers. Many of the works deemed to be part of the musical canon are from genres regarded as the most serious, such as the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and opera. Folk music was already giving art music melodies, and from the late 19th century, in an atmosphere of increasing nationalism, began to influence composers in formal and other ways, before being admitted to some sort of status in the canon itself.

Since the early twentieth century non-Western music has begun to influence Western composers. In particular direct homages to Javanese gamelan music are to be found in works for western instruments by Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Benjamin Britten, John Cage, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass.[17]

In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by other composers than the handful (mainly Bach and George Frideric Handel) previously admitted.

Women composers

Main article: Women in music

Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music, and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period. Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?"[18] Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works." She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed to be not notable as composers.[18] In the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the few female composers mentioned."[19] Abbey Philips states that "[d]uring the 20th century the women who were composing/playing gained far less attention than their male counterparts."[19]

Visual arts

The Capitoline Venus (Capitoline Museums), an Antonine copy of a late Hellenistic sculpture that ultimately derives from Praxiteles
Main article: Art history

The backbone of traditional Western art history is a celebratory chronology of artworks, mostly of a luxury nature, commissioned by elite groups in western Europe for private or public enjoyment, as well as works in drawing and printmaking. Much of this was religious, mostly Roman Catholic art. The classical art of Greece and Rome has been regarded since the Renaissance as the fount of the Western tradition, and was long regarded as superior to modern creations in the equivalent fields, in particular sculpture.

Giorgio Vasari (1511–74) is the great originator of the artistic canon, and the originator of many of the concepts it embodies. His Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects covers only artists working in Italy,[20] with a strong pro-Florentine prejudice, and has cast a long shadow over succeeding centuries. Northern European art has arguably never quite caught up to Italy in terms of prestige, and Vasari's placing of Giotto as the founding father of "modern" painting has largely been retained. In painting the rather vague term of Old master covers painters up to about the time of Goya.

Such a "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects present in art history textbooks, as well as the prices obtained in the art trade. But there have been considerable swings of fortune in what is valued. In the 19th century the Baroque fell into great disfavour, to be revived from about the 1920s, by which time the Academic art of the 18th and 19th century was largely disregarded, and Victorian painting generally, with its equivalents in other countries. The High Renaissance Vasari regarded as the greatest period has always retained its prestige, but the succeeding period of Mannerism has fallen in and out of favour.

In the 19th century the beginnings of academic art history, led by German universities, led to much better understanding and appreciation of medieval art, and a more nuanced understanding of classical art, including the realization that many if not most treasured masterpieces of sculpture were late Roman copies rather than Greek originals. The European tradition of art was expanded to include Byzantine art and the new discoveries of archaeology, notably Etruscan art, Celtic art and Upper Paleolithic art.

Since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of art made by women, and vernacular creativity, especially in printed media, and an expansion to include works in the Western tradition produced outside Europe. At the same time there has been much greater appreciation of non-Western traditions, to some extent including their place with Western art in wider global or Eurasian traditions. The decorative arts have traditionally had a much lower critical status than fine art, although often highly valued by collectors, and still tend to be given little prominence in undergraduate studies as well as popular coverage on television and in print.

Feminism and the artistic canon

Main article: Women artists

Women were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions, and running a workshop. In addition, since the Renaissance the nude, more often than not female, has had a special position as subject matter. Linda Nochlin's 1971 essay, "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?", analyzes the embedded privilege in the predominantly male, Western art world and argued that women's outsider status allowed them a unique viewpoint to not only critique women's position in art, but to additionally examine the discipline's underlying assumptions about gender and ability.[21] Nochlin's essay develops the argument that both formal and social education restricted artistic development to men, preventing women (with rare exception) from honing their talents and gaining entry into the art world.[21]

In the 1970s, feminist art criticism continued this critique of the institutionalized sexism of art history, art museums, and galleries, as well as questioning which genres of art were deemed museum-worthy.[22] This position is articulated by artist Judy Chicago:

[I]t is crucial to understand that one of the ways in which the importance of male experience is conveyed is through the art objects that are exhibited and preserved in our museums. Whereas men experience presence in our art institutions, women experience primarily absence, except in images that do not necessarily reflect women's own sense of themselves.[23]

In 2016-17, however, the art of American modernist Georgia O'Keefe has been staged at the Tate Modern, in London, is then moving in December 2016 to Vienna, Austria, before visiting the Art Gallery of Ontario, Canada in 2017.[24]

Literary canon

The Great Books of the Western World is an attempt to present the western canon in the pages of 60 volumes

Classic book

Main article: Classic book

With regard to books, what makes a book "classic" is a concern that has occurred to various authors ranging from Italo Calvino to Mark Twain and the related questions of "Why Read the Classics?" and "What Is a Classic?" have been essayed by authors from different genres and eras, including Calvino, T. S. Eliot, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Michael Dirda, and Ezra Pound.

The terms "classic book" and Western canon are closely related concepts, but they are not necessarily synonymous. A "canon" refers to a list of books considered to be "essential" and is presented in a variety of ways. It can be published as a collection (such as Great Books of the Western World, Modern Library, Everyman's Library, or Penguin Classics), presented as a list with an academic’s imprimatur (such as Harold Bloom's[25]) or be the official reading list of an institution of higher learning.

Origins of the literary canon

The process of defining the boundaries of the canon is endless. The philosopher John Searle has said, "In my experience there never was, in fact, a fixed 'canon'; there was rather a certain set of tentative judgments about what had importance and quality. Such judgments are always subject to revision, and in fact they were constantly being revised."[1] One of the notable attempts at compiling an authoritative canon for literature in the English-speaking world was the Great Books of the Western World program. This program, developed in the middle third of the 20th century, grew out of the curriculum at the University of Chicago. University president Robert Maynard Hutchins and his collaborator Mortimer Adler developed a program that offered reading lists, books, and organizational strategies for reading clubs to the general public. An earlier attempt, had been made in 1909 by Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot, with the Harvard Classics, a 51-volume anthology of classic works from world literature. Eliot's view was the same as that of Scottish philosopher and historian Thomas Carlyle: "The true University of these days is a Collection of Books". ("The Hero as Man of Letters", 1840)

In Britain

British renaissance poetry

While the canon of Renaissance English poetry of the 16th and early 17th century, has always been in some form of flux, it is only towards the late 20th century that concerted efforts were made to challenge the canon. The central figures of the British renaissance canon are Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sidney, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and John Donne. There have been few attempts to change this long established list because the cultural importance of these six is so great that even re-evaluations on grounds of literary merit has not dared to dislodge them from the curriculum.

John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Edmund Spenser were major influences on 17th-century poetry. However, poet John Dryden condemned aspects of the metaphysical poets in his criticism. In the 18th century Metaphysical poetry fell into further disrepute,[26] while the interest in Elizabethan poetry was rekindled through the scholarship of Thomas Warton and others. However, the canon of Renaissance poetry was formed in the Victorian period, with anthologies like Palgrave's Golden Treasury.

In the twentieth century T. S. Eliot and Yvor Winters were two literary critics who were especially concerned with revising the canon of renaissance English literature in the 20th century. T. S. Eliot, for example, championed poet Sir John Davies, in an article in The Times Literary Supplement, in 1926 (republished in On Poetry and Poets, 1957).

The American critic Yvor Winters suggested in 1939, an alternative canon of Elizabethan poetry.[27] In this canon he excludes the famous representatives of the Petrarchan school of poetry, represented by Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser, and instead turns his eye to a Native or Plain Style anti-Petrarchan movement, which he claims has been overlooked and undervalued. The most underrated member of this movement he deems to have been George Gascoigne (1525–1577), who "deserves to be ranked […] among the six or seven greatest lyric poets of the century, and perhaps higher".[28]

Both Eliot and Winters were very much in favour of the established canon, but towards the end of the 20th century the established canon was increasingly under fire.[29]

19th century British women poets

In recent years there has been more interest in the works of women poets of the Romantic and Victorian period including Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Felicia Dorothea Hemans, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Turner Smith, Mary Robinson, Hannah More, and Joanna Baillie.[30]

Feminism and the literary canon

The feminist movement produced both feminist fiction and non-fiction, and created new interest in women's writing. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest.[31] Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Studies like Dale Spender's Mothers of the Novel (1986) and Jane Spencer's The Rise of the Woman Novelist (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early 20th century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender's study, issued a companion line of 18th-century novels written by women.[32]

The expansion of the literary canon in the 20th century

The widespread interest in women's writing is related to a general reassessment and expansion of the literary canon. Interest in post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of other historically marginalized groups has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered "literature", and genres hitherto not regarded as "literary", such as children's writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the subjects of scholarly interest.[31][33][34] Most genres and subgenres have undergone a similar analysis, so that one now sees work on the "female gothic"[35] or women's science fiction.

According to Elyce Rae Helford, "Science fiction and fantasy serve as important vehicles for feminist thought, particularly as bridges between theory and practice."[36] Feminist science fiction is sometimes taught at the university level to explore the role of social constructs in understanding gender.[37]

Black writers

In the twentieth century the Weston literary canon has started to include black writers, and several have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, including Wole Soyinka from Nigeria, Derek Walcott from St. Lucia, V. S. Naipaul from Trinidad and Toni Morrison from the United States.

In the USA

Throughout American history, African Americans have been discriminated against and subject to racist attitudes. This experience inspired some Black writers, at least during the early years of African-American literature, to prove they were the equals of European-American authors. As Henry Louis Gates, Jr, has said, "it is fair to describe the subtext of the history of black letters as this urge to refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were bearers of an inferior culture."[38]

By refuting the claims of the dominant culture, African-American writers were also attempting to subvert the literary and power traditions of the United States. Some scholars assert that writing has traditionally been seen as "something defined by the dominant culture as a white male activity."[38] This means that, in American society, literary acceptance has traditionally been intimately tied in with the very power dynamics which perpetrated such evils as racial discrimination. By borrowing from and incorporating the non-written oral traditions and folk life of the African diaspora, African-American literature broke "the mystique of connection between literary authority and patriarchal power."[39] In producing their own literature, African Americans were able to establish their own literary traditions devoid of the white intellectual filter. This view of African-American literature as a tool in the struggle for Black political and cultural liberation has been stated for decades, perhaps most famously by W. E. B. Du Bois.[40]

Canon of Western philosophers

See also, List of important publications in philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy has consistently held a prominent place in the canon. Only a relatively small number of works of Greek philosophy have survived, essentially those thought most worth copying in the Middle Ages. Plato, Aristotle and, indirectly, Socrates are the primary figures. Roman philosophy is included, but regarded as less significant (as it tended to be even by the Romans themselves). The ancient philosophy of other cultures now receives more attention than before the 20th century. The vast body of Christian philosophy is typically represented on reading lists mainly by Saints Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, and the 12th-century Jewish scholar Maimonides is now usually represented, mostly by The Guide for the Perplexed. The academic canon of early modern philosophy generally includes Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, though influential contributions to philosophy were made by many thinkers in this period.[41]

Role of women

Main article: Women in philosophy

Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times–notably Hipparchia of Maroneia (active ca. 325 BC) and Arete of Cyrene (active 5th–4th century BC), and a relatively small number were accepted as philosophers during the ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary eras, particularly during the 20th and 21st century – notably Susanne Langer (1895–1985), Hannah Arendt (1906–1975) and Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986) – almost no woman philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon.[42][43]

In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that there is gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy.[44] In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics."[45]

Sources containing canonical lists

20th century art

Painting the Century: 101 Portrait Masterpieces 1900–2000

English literature

More comprehensive collections:

University reading lists

Contemporary anthologies of renaissance literature

The preface to the Blackwell anthology of Renaissance Literature from 2003 acknowledges the importance of online access to literary texts on the selection of what to include, meaning that the selection can be made on basis of functionality rather than representativity".[50] This anthology has made its selection based on three principles. One is "unabashedly canonical", meaning that Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson have been given the space prospective users would expect. A second principle is "non-canonical", giving women writers such as Anne Askew, Elizabeth Cary, Emilia Lanier, Martha Moulsworth, and Lady Mary Wroth a representative selection. It also includes texts that may not be representative of the qualitatively best efforts of Renaissance literature, but of the quantitatively most numerous texts, such as homilies and erotica. A third principle has been thematic, so that the anthology aims to include texts that bring light on issues of special interest to contemporary scholars.

The Blackwell anthology is still firmly organised round authors, however. A different strategy has been observed by The Penguin Book of Renaissance Verse from 1992".[51] Here the texts are organised according to topic, under the headings The Public World, Images of Love, Topographies, Friends, Patrons and the Good Life, Church, State and Belief, Elegy and Epitaph, Translation, Writer, Language and Public. It is arguable that such an approach is more suitable for the interested reader than for the student. While the two anthologies are not directly comparable, since the Blackwell anthology also includes prose, and the Penguin goes up to 1659, it is telling that while the larger Blackwell anthology contains work by 48 poets, seven of which are women, the Penguin anthology contains 374 poems by 109 poets, including 13 women and one poet each in Welsh Siôn Phylip and Irish Eochaidh Ó Heóghusa.

German literature

The Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century

The Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century is a list of books compiled in 1999 by Literaturhaus München and Bertelsmann, in which 99 prominent German authors, literary critics, and scholars of German ranked the most significant German-language novels of the twentieth century.[52]

The group brought together 33 experts from each of the three categories.[53] Each was allowed to name three books as having been the most important of the century. Cited by the group were five titles by both Franz Kafka and Arno Schmidt, four by Robert Walser, and three by Thomas Mann, Hermann Broch, Anna Seghers and Joseph Roth.[52]

Der Kanon or more precisely "Marcel-Reich-Ranickis Kanon" is a large anthology of exemplary works of German literature.[54]

French literature

See Key texts of French literature

Canon of Dutch Literature

The Canon of Dutch Literature comprises a list of 1000 works of Dutch Literature culturally important to the cultural heritage of the Low Countries, and is published on the DBNL. Several of these works are lists themselves; such as early dictionaries, lists of songs, recipes, biographies or encyclopedic compilations of information such as mathematical, scientific, medical or plant reference books. Other items include early translations of literature from other countries, history books, and first-hand diaries and published correspondence. Notable original works can be found by author name.


The Danish Culture Canon

The Danish Culture Canon consists of 108 works of cultural excellence in eight categories: architecture, visual arts, design and crafts, film, literature, music, performing arts, and children's culture. An initiative of Brian Mikkelsen in 2004, it was developed by a series of committees under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture in 2006–2007 as "a collection and presentation of the greatest, most important works of Denmark's cultural heritage." Each category contains 12 works although music contains 12 works of score music and 12 of popular music and the literature section's 12th item is an anthology of 24 works.[55][56]


Världsbiblioteket (The World Library) was a Swedish list of the 100 best books in the world, created in 1991 by the Swedish literary magazine Tidningen Boken. The list was compiled through votes from members of the Svenska Akademien, Swedish Crime Writers' Academy, librarian, authors and others. Approximately 30 of the books were Swedish.



See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Searle, John. (1990) "The Storm Over the University", The New York Review of Books, December 6, 1990.
  2. 1 2 Hicks, Stephen. (2004). Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. Scholargy Press, p. 18.
  3. Jay Stevenson (2007). The Complete Idiot's Guide to English Literature. Alpha Books. pp. 9–10.
  4. Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved May 25, 2009).
  5. Nadine Drozan, "Chronicle", The New York Times, May 6, 1992.
  6. Bernard Knox, The Oldest Dead White European Males and Other Reflections on the Classics (1993) (reprint, W. W. Norton & Company, 1994), ISBN 978-0-393-31233-1.
  7. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, "Books of The Times; Putting In a Word for Homer, Herodotus, Plato, Etc.", The New York Times, April 29, 1993.
  8. Gerald J. Russello, The Postmodern Imagination of Russell Kirk (2007) p. 14
  9. Hyrum S. Lewis (2007). Sacralizing the Right: William F. Buckley Jr., Whittaker Chambers, Will Herberg and the Transformation of Intellectual Conservatism, 1945–1964. ProQuest. p. 122.
  10. Allan Bloom (2008), p. 344.
  11. M. Keith Booker (2005). Encyclopedia of Literature and Politics: A-G. Greenwood. pp. 180–1.
  12. Jeffrey Williams, ed. PC wars: Politics and theory in the academy (Routledge, 2013)
  13. Wisegeek.org
  14. From 1854 to 1891 she "toured the British Isles and the Continent, hailed as one of the top pianists of the world": Reich, 2001, p. 249
  15. Rushton, Julian, Classical Music, (London, 1994), 10
  16. "Classical", The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music, ed. Michael Kennedy, (Oxford, 2007), Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  17. "Western Artists and Gamelan", CoastOnline.org.
  18. 1 2 Citron, Marcia J. "Gender and the Musical Canon." CUP Archive, 1993.
  19. 1 2 ; 11:04 AM by Abbey Philips (2011-09-01). "The history of women and gender roles in music". Rvanews.com. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  20. With nods in the text to Jan van Eyck and Albrecht Dürer, but not lives.
  21. 1 2 Nochlin, Linda (1971). Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?. Women, Art and Power and Other Essays. Westview Press.
  22. Atkins, Robert (2013). Artspeak: A Guide to Contemporary Ideas, Movements, and Buzzwords, 1945 to the Present (3rd ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 9780789211507. OCLC 855858296.
  23. Chicago, Judy; Lucie-Smith, Edward (1999). Women and Art: Contested Territory. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. p. 10. ISBN 0-8230-5852-2.
  24. Art Gallery of Ontario
  25. Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.
  26. "Life of Cowley," in Samuel Johnson's Lives of the Poets
  27. Poetry, LII (1939, pp. 258-72, excerpted in Paul. J. Alpers (ed): Elizabethan Poetry. Modern Essays in Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  28. Poetry, LII (1939, pp. 258-72, excerpted in Paul. J. Alpers (ed): Elizabethan Poetry. Modern Essays in Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967: 98
  29. Waller, Gary F. (2013). English Poetry of the Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge. pp. 263–70. ISBN 0582090962. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  30. Paula R. Feldman, "Women Poets and Anonymity in the Romantic Era". New Literary History, Volume 33, Number 2, Spring 2002 pp. 279-289
  31. 1 2 Blain, Virginia; Clements, Patricia; Grundy, Isobel (1990). The feminist companion to literature in English: women writers from the Middle Ages to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. vii–x. ISBN 0-300-04854-8.
  32. Sandra M. Gilbert, "Paperbacks: From Our Mothers' Libraries: women who created the novel." New York Times, 4 May 1986.
  33. Buck, Claire, ed. (1992). The Bloomsbury Guide to Women's Literature. Prentice Hall. p. vix.
  34. Salzman, Paul (2000). "Introduction". Early Modern Women's Writing. Oxford UP. pp. ix–x.
  35. Term coined by Ellen Moers in Literary Women: The Great Writers (New York: Doubleday, 1976). See also Juliann E. Fleenor, ed., The Female Gothic (Montreal: Eden Press, 1983) and Gary Kelly, ed., Varieties of Female Gothic 6 Vols. (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2002).
  36. Helford, Elyce Rae (2005). "Feminist Science Fiction". In Gary Westfahl. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Greenwood Press. pp. 289–291. ISBN 0-300-04854-8.
  37. Lips, Hilary M. (1990). "Using Science Fiction to Teach the Psychology of Sex and Gender". Teaching of Psychology. 17 (3): 197–8. doi:10.1207/s15328023top1703_17.
  38. 1 2 "The Other Ghost in Beloved: The Specter of the Scarlet Letter" by Jan Stryz from The New Romanticism: a collection of critical essays by Eberhard Alsen, p. 140, ISBN 0-8153-3547-4.
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