Voiceless glottal affricate
|Voiceless glottal affricate|
|IPA number||113 146|
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The voiceless glottal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ʔ͡h⟩ and ⟨ʔ͜h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?_h. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨ʔh⟩ in the IPA and ?h in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.
Features of the voiceless glottal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is glottal, which means it is articulated at and by the vocal cords (vocal folds).
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Chinese||Yuxi dialect||可||[ʔ͡ho˥˧]||'can, may'||Corresponds to /kʰ/ in Standard Chinese.|
|English||Received Pronunciation||hat||[ʔ͡haʔt]||'hat'||Possible allophone of /h/, especially in stressed syllables. See English phonology|
- Colarusso, John (2012), The Typology of the Gutturals (PDF)
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
- Yang, Shifeng (1969), A Report of Investigating Dialects in Yunnan Province [雲南方言調查報告]