Voiced retroflex sibilant
|Voiced retroflex sibilant|
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The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʐ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a z (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant).
Features of the voiced retroflex fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Abkhaz||абжа||[ˈabʐa]||'half'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Chinese||Mandarin||肉/ròu||[ʐoʊ̯˥˩]||'meat'||May also be a retroflex approximant [ɻ]. See Mandarin phonology|
|Italian||Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna||caso||[ˈkäːʐo]||'case'||Apical; may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʒ] instead. It corresponds to [z] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology|
|Mapudungun||'rayen||[ʐɜˈjën]||'flower'||May be [ɻ] or [ɭ] instead.|
|Marrithiyel||Marri Tjevin dialect||[wiˈɲaʐu]||'they are laughing'||Voicing is non-contrastive.|
|Pashto||Southern dialect||تږى||[ˈtəʐai]||'thirsty'||See Pashto phonology|
|Polish||Standard||żona||[ˈʐ̻ɔn̪ä]||'wife'||Also represented by ⟨rz⟩ and when written so, it can be instead pronounced as the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill by few speakers. It is transcribed as /ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology|
|Southeastern Cuyavian dialects||zapłacił||[ʐäˈpwät͡ɕiw]||'he paid'||Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʐ/ and /z/ into [z].|
|Russian||жена||[ʐɨ̞ˈna]||'wife'||See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||жут / žut||[ʐûːt̪]||'yellow'||Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Some Upper Sorbian dialects||Used in dialects spoken in villages north of Hoyerswerda; corresponds to [ʒ] in standard language. See Upper Sorbian phonology|
|Ubykh||[ʐa]||'firewood'||See Ubykh phonology|
|Vietnamese||Southern dialects||rô||[ʐow]||'diamond'||See Vietnamese phonology|
- Canepari (1992), p. 73.
- Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
- Hamann (2004:65)
- Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
- Šewc-Schuster (1984:40–41)
- Zygis (2003:180–181, 190–191)
- Šewc-Schuster (1984:41)
- Zygis (2003:180)
- Merrill (2008:109)
- Lunsford (2001:16–20)
- Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
- Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 53–67, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001604
- Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
- Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
- Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
- Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
- Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina
- Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213