Voiced retroflex affricate
|Voiced retroflex affricate|
|IPA number||106 (137)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0256 U+0361 U+0290|
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The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ͡ʐ ⟩, sometimes simplified to ⟨dʐ ⟩. It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate dż) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).
Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Belarusian||лічба||[lʲiɖ͡ʐbä]||'number'||Laminal. See Belarusian phonology|
|Polish||Standard||dżem||[ɖ͡ʐɛm]||'jam'||Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scolars. See Polish phonology|
|Southeastern Cuyavian dialects||dzwon||[ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪]||'bell'||Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].|
|Russian||джем||[ɖ͡ʐɛm]||'jam'||Laminal. It is a very rare variant, and it is usually pronounced as a sequence [dʐ]. See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||џем / džem||[ɖ͡ʐê̞m]||'jam'||Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Torwali||?||[ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥]||'long'||Contrasts with a palatal affricate.|
- Unlike the alveolar and palato-alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
- Jassem (2003:103)
- Hamann (2004:65)
- Lightner (1972:67)
- Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
- Lunsford (2001:16–20)
- Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 53–67, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001604
- Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Lightner, Theodore M. (1972), Problems in the Theory of Phonology, I: Russian phonology and Turkish phonology, Edmonton: Linguistic Research, inc
- Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington