Voiced palatal stop
|Voiced palatal stop|
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The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɟ⟩, a barred dotless ⟨j⟩ which was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter ⟨f⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.
If distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed ⟨ɟ̟⟩, ⟨ɟ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɟ⟩) or ⟨d̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalized ⟨d⟩), but these are essentially equivalent, because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_+ and d_-' or d_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȡ⟩ ("d", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.
The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ], as in English jump. Because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge, [ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [d͡ʒ]. It is also common for the symbol ⟨ɟ⟩ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.
There is also the voiced post-palatal stop in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiced velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨ɟ̠⟩, ⟨ɟ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ɟ⟩), ⟨ɡ̟⟩ or ⟨ɡ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɡ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_- and g_+, respectively.
Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal stop may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar stop (⟨ɡʲ⟩ in the IPA, g' or g_j in X-SAMPA).
Features of the voiced palatal stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar [ɡ].
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Albanian||gjuha||[ˈɟuha]||'tongue'||Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian and some speakers of Tosk Albanian.|
|Arabic||Some Northern Yemeni dialects||جمل||[ˈɟamal]||'camel'||Corresponds to [d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ ɡ] in other varieties. See Arabic phonology|
|Some Sudanese speakers|
|Catalan||Eastern||guix||[ˈɡ̟i̞ɕ]||'chalk'||Post-palatal; allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels. See Catalan phonology|
|Majorcan||[ˈɟi̞ɕ]||Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Taiwanese Hokkien||攑手/gia̍h-tshiú||[ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩]||'(to) raise a hand'|
|Czech||dělám||[ˈɟɛlaːm]||'I do'||See Czech phonology|
|English||Australian||geese||[ɡ̟ɪi̯s]||'geese'||Post-palatal, less commonly palatal. Allophone of /ɡ/ before /iː ɪ e eː æ æɪ æɔ ɪə j/. See Australian English phonology|
|French||gui||[ɟi]||'mistletoe'||Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology|
|Greek||μετάγγιση/metággisi||[me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i]||'transfusion'||Post-palatal. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||gyám||[ɟäːm]||'guardian'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||Gaeilge||[ˈɡeːlʲɟə]||'Irish language'||See Irish phonology|
|Italian||Standard||ghianda||[ˈɡ̟jän̪ːd̪ä]||'acorn'||Post-palatal; allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/. See Italian phonology|
|Latvian||ģimene||[ˈɟime̞ne̞]||'family'||See Latvian phonology|
|Macedonian||раѓање||[ˈraɟaɲɛ]||'birth'||See Macedonian phonology|
|Norwegian||Central||fadder||[fɑɟːeɾ]||'godparent'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Occitan||Auvergnat||diguèt||[ɟiˈɡɛ]||'said' (3rd pers. sing.)||See Occitan phonology|
|Portuguese||Some fluminense speakers||amiguinho||[əmiˈɟĩȷ̃u]||'little buddy' (m.)||Allophone of stressed /ɡ/ after [i ~ ɪ] and before close front vowels (/i, e, ĩ, ẽ/).|
|Some Brazilian speakers||pedinte||[piˈɟ̟ĩc̟i̥]||'beggar'||Corresponds to affricate allophone of /d/ before /i/ that is common in Brazil. See Portuguese phonology|
|Romanian||ghimpe||[ˈɟimpe̞]||'thorn'||Allophone of /ɡ/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology|
|Slovak||ďaleký||[ˈɟ̟äɫe̞kiː]||'far'||Alveolo-palatal. See Slovak phonology|
|Turkish||güneş||[ɟyˈne̞ʃ]||'sun'||See Turkish phonology|
|Vietnamese||North-central dialect||da||[ɟa˧]||'skin'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yanyuwa||[ɡ̠uɡ̟uɭu]||'sacred'||Post-palatal. Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions|
- Ladefoged (2005), p. 162.
- Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
- Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
- Kolgjini (2004).
- Watson (2002), p. 16.
- Rafel (1999), p. 14.
- Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
- Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
- Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
- Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
- Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
- Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
- Canepari (1992), p. 62.
- Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
- Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited
- "Definiția cu ID-ul 9532", DEX Online (in Romanian)
- Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv
- Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
- Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X
- Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
- Kolgjini, Julie M. (2004), Palatalization in Albanian: An acoustic investigation of stops and affricates (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Arlington
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
- Newmark, Leonard; Hubbard, Philip; Prifti, Peter R. (1982), Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1129-6
- Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 84-7283-446-8
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878
- Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla, Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press