Voiced palatal fricative

Voiced palatal fricative
IPA number 139
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
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The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\. It is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant.

In broad transcription, the symbol for the palatal approximant, j, may be used for the sake of simplicity.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs a result of phonological processes.

There is also the voiced post-palatal fricative[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal fricative, though not as back as the prototypical voiced velar fricative. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ʝ̠, ʝ˗ (both symbols denote a retracted ʝ), ɣ̟ or ɣ˖ (both symbols denote an advanced ɣ). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_- and G_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar fricative (ɣʲ in the IPA, G' or G_j in X-SAMPA).


Features of the voiced palatal fricative:



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[2] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[3] talg [ˈtˢælˀʝ] 'tallow' Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/.[3] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[4] ja [ʝaː] 'yes' Frequent allophone of /j/, especially in emphatic speech.[4] See Dutch phonology
German Standard[5][6] Jacke [ˈʝäkə] 'jacket' Most often transcribed with j; also described as an approximant [j][7][8] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[9] See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[10] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/
Hungarian[11] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[12] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Italian Southern dialects figlio [ˈfiʝːo] 'son' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Lithuanian[13][14] ji [ʝɪ] 'she' Most often transcribed with j; also described as an approximant [j].[15] See Lithuanian phonology
Mapudungun[16] kayu [kɜˈʝʊ] 'six' May be an approximant [j] instead.[16]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[17][18] gi [ʝiː] 'to give' Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech.[18] See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Ghilji dialect[19] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Wardak dialect[19]
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Russian[20] яма [ˈʝämə] 'pit' Allophone of /j/ in emphatic speech.[20] See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[21] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Slovak[22] prijímať [ˈpɾɪʝɪːmäc̟] 'to receive' Possible allophone of /j/ between close front vowels.[22] See Slovak phonology
Spanish[23] sayo [ˈsäʝo̞] 'smock' More often an approximant; may also be represented by ll in many dialects. See Spanish phonology and Yeísmo
Swedish[24] jord  [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian геаграфія [ɣ̟e.äˈɣɾäfʲijä] 'geography' Typically transcribed with ɣʲ. See Belarusian phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[25] gaan [ɣ̟aːn] 'to go' May be velar [ɣ] instead.[25] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[25]
German Standard[26] Riese [ˈɣ̟iːzə] 'giant' Allophone of the fricative /ʁ/ before and after front vowels.[26] See Standard German phonology
Greek Standard Modern[27][28] γένος  [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠]  'gender' See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[29] gèr [ɣ̟ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[29]
Lithuanian[15][30] Hiustonas [ˈɣ̟ʊs̪t̪ɔn̪ɐs̪] 'Houston' Very rare;[31] typically transcribed with ɣʲ. See Lithuanian phonology
Russian Standard[20] других гимнов [d̪rʊˈɡ̟ɪɣ̟ ˈɡ̟imn̪əf] 'of other anthems' Allophone of /x/ before voiced soft consonants;[20] typically transcribed with ɣʲ. The example also illustrates [ɡ̟]. See Russian phonology
Southern гимн [ɣ̟imn̪] 'anthem' Typically transcribed with ɣʲ; corresponds to [ɡʲ] in standard Russian. See Russian phonology


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Mapudungun[32] Allophone of /ɣ/ before the front vowels /ɪ, e/.[32]

See also



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