Voiced labiodental affricate

Voiced labiodental affricate
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A voiced labiodental affricate ([b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].


Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[1] vèès [b̪͡vɛːs] 'screw' Labiodental; occasional allophone of /v/; distribution unclear.[1] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
Italian Some central-south dialects[2] in vetta [iɱˈb̪͡vet̪̚t̪ä] 'at the top' Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals.[2] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[3] Hien huet säi Kampf opginn [hiə̯n huə̯t z̥æːɪ̯ ˈkʰɑmb͡v‿ˈopɡ̊in] 'he has given up his fight' Bilabial-labiodental, occurs only word-finally before words beginning with vowels (when pronounced without a pause between them) in German loanwords.[3] See Luxembourgish phonology
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin' Labiodental.



  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083 

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