Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 216
Entity (decimal) ʥ
Unicode (hex) U+02A5
X-SAMPA d_z\ or J\_z\
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The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are d͡ʑ, d͜ʑ, ɟ͡ʑ and ɟ͜ʑ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ɟ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding or ɟʑ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively.

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ʥ, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali খন [d͡ʑɔkʰon] 'when' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects metge [ˈmedd͡ʑə] 'doctor' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc [ˈd͡ʑɔk] 'game'
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien /ji̍t [d͡ʑit̚˧ʔ] 'sun'
Wu [d͡ʑy] 'he/she/it'
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 감자/gamja [kɐmd͡ʑɐ] 'potato' See Korean phonology
Polish[2] więk  [d͡ʑvjɛŋk]  'sound' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[3] des [d͡ʑes] 'frequent' Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian дочь бы [ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[4] aji [à̠d͡ʑì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[4]
Serbo-Croatian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Xumi Lower[6] [Hd͡ʑɐʔ] 'water'
Upper[7] [Hd͡ʑɜ]
Yi /jji [d͡ʑi˧] 'bee'

See also



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