During Vietnam's Annam Empire, Vietnamese nobility were classified into nine classes, with names similar to their Chinese equivalent. These are listed here from the highest to the lowest, along with their equivalent European titles.
- Vuong (King, or Prince)
- Quoc-Cong (literally "National Duke")
- Quan-Cong (literally "County Duke")
- Cong (Duke)
- Hau (Marquis)
- Ba (Count)
- Tu (Viscount)
- Nam (Baron)
- Vinh phong (no equivalent, roughly Baronet).
- R. B. Smith (1974). "Politics and Society in Viet-Nam during the Early Nguyen Period (1802–62)". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 106 (2), pp 153-69.