Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine
| IUPAC name
[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl] [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] hydrogen phosphate
| Other names
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||607.35 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine or UDP-GlcNAc is a nucleotide sugar and a coenzyme in metabolism. It is used by glycosyltransferases to transfer N-acetylglucosamine residues to substrates. D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. To be specific, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. The end-product of this pathway is UDP-GlcNAc, which is then used for making glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycolipids.
UDP-GlcNAc is extensively involved in intracellular signaling as a substrate for O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferases (OGTs) in a wide range of species. It is also involved in nuclear pore formation and nuclear signalling. OGTs and OG-ases play an important role in the structure of the cytoskeleton. In mammals, there is enrichment of OGT transcripts in the pancreas beta-cells, and UDP-GlcNAc is thought to be part of the glucose sensing mechanism. There is also evidence that it plays a part in insulin sensitivity in other cells. In plants, it is involved in the control of gibberellin production.
Clostridium novyi type A alpha-toxin is an O-linked N-actetylglucosamine transferase acting on Rho proteins and causing the collapse of the cytoskeleton.
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- International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Milewski S, Gabriel I, Olchowy J (2006). "Enzymes of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis in yeast". Yeast. 23 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1002/yea.1337. PMID 16408321.
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