Institute of technology

"Technology school" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Technical school.
The Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin), one of Europe's first and a rolemodel for later establishments
The coat of arms of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest technological university in the English-speaking world (est. 1824).

An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in technology, engineering, and possibly natural sciences. Which of the terms is in use varies from country to country.

The English term polytechnic appeared in the early 19th century, from the French École Polytechnique, an engineering school founded in 1794 in Paris. The French term comes from the Greek πολύ (polú or polý) meaning "many" and τεχνικός (tekhnikós) meaning "arts".[1]

Institutes of technology versus polytechnics

The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after World War II with the expansion of engineering and applied science education, associated with the new needs created by industrialization. The world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola (today its legal successor is the University of Miskolc[2]) was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the Braunschweig University of Technology (founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum"). Another exception is the École Polytechnique, which has educated French élites since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges.

In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Turkey, institutes of technology and polytechnics are institutions of higher education, and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the Istanbul Technical University, ETH Zurich, İYTE, Delft University of Technology and RWTH Aachen, all considered universities.

In countries like Iran, Finland, Malaysia, Portugal, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is often a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK a binary system of higher education emerged consisting of universities (research orientation) and Polytechnics (engineering and applied science and professional practice orientation). Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees from bachelor's, master's and PhD that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK Council for National Academic Awards. In 1992 UK Polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees. The CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now the University of Westminster) was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London. In Ireland the term institute of technology is the more favored synonym of a regional technical college though the latter is the legally correct term; however, Dublin Institute of Technology is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law, Cork Institute of Technology[3] and other Institutes of Technology have delegated authority from HETAC to make awards to and including master's degree level—Level 9 of the National Framework for Qualifications (NFQ)—for all areas of study and Doctorate level in a number of others.

In a number of countries, although being today generally considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries, polytechnics and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases polytechnic were elite technological universities concentrating on applied science and engineering and may also be a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be truly called an institute of technology. A number of polytechnics providing higher education is simply a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged solely through an administrative change of statutes, which often included a name change with the introduction of new designations like institute of technology, polytechnic university, university of applied sciences, or university of technology for marketing purposes.[4][5] Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being also associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. This is mostly the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and everybody can grant degrees. Evidence have also shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions.[6][7] Mentz, Kotze and Van der Merwe (2008)[8] argue that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in universities of technology specifically. The aspects of this debate can follow the following lines:

Institutes by country


In the so-called Latin American docta the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the National Technological University which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of Regional Faculties. The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (ITBA) is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country.


See also: Education in Australia, Technical and Further Education, College of Advanced Education, and Category:Australian tertiary institutions

During the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these merged with existing universities, or formed new ones of their own. These new universities often took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report The most prominent such university in each state founded the Australian Technology Network a few years later.


Since the mid-1990s, the term has been applied to some technically minded technical and further education (TAFE) institutes. A recent example is the Melbourne Polytechnic rebranding and repositioning in 2014 from Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE.[9] These primarily offer vocational education, although some like Melbourne Polytechnic are expanding into higher education offering vocationally oriented applied bachelor degress. This usage of the term is most prevalent historically in NSW and the ACT. The new terminology is apt given that this category of institution are becoming very much like the institutes of the 1970s–1990s period.

In Tasmania in 2009 the old college system and TAFE Tasmania have started a 3-year restructure to become the Tasmanian Polytechnic, Tasmanian Skills Institute and Tasmanian Academy

In the higher education sector, there are seven designated Universities of Technology in Australia (though, note, not all use the phrase "university of technology", such as the Universities of Canberra and South Australia, which used to be Colleges of Advanced Education before transitioning into fully-fledged universities with the ability - most important of all - to confer doctorates):


The world's first technical institute the Berg-Schola was founded in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1735 by the Chamber of Vienna.

Technische Universität

These institutions grant can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research.

Research institutions

These institutions focus only on research.

Technical faculties at universities

Some universities have a Faculty of Technology that can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research.


Fachhochschule is a German type of tertiary education institution and adopted later in Austria and Switzerland. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees, and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.

In 2010, there were 20 Fachhochschulen in Austria[10]


There are six public engineering universities in Bangladesh.

There is only one private engineering specialized university in Bangladesh.

There is only one international engineering specialized university in Bangladesh.

There are numerous private and other universities as well as science and technology universities providing engineering education in the country.Like..


Belgium and the Netherlands

Hogeschool is used in Belgium and in the Netherlands. The hogeschool has many similarities to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas and to the ammattikorkeakoulu in Finland.

Hogeschool institutions in the Flemish Community of Belgium (such as the Erasmus Hogeschool Brussel) are currently undergoing a process of academization. They form associations with a university and integrate research into the curriculum, which will allow them to deliver academic master's degrees.

In the Netherlands, four former institutes of technology have become universities over the past decades. These are the current three Technical Universities (at Delft, Eindhoven and Enschede), plus the former agricultural institute in Wageningen. A list of all hogescholen in the Netherlands, including some which might be called polytechnics, can be found here.




In Cambodia, there are institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes, and Universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to: certificates, diplomas, and degrees. Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes and universities tend to be independent institutions.

Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes


In Canada, there are affiliate schools, colleges, institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes, and universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to engineering and applied science degrees, apprenticeship and trade programs, certificates, and diplomas. Affiliate schools are polytechnic divisions belonging to a national university and offer select technical and engineering programs. Colleges, institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes, and universities tend to be independent institutions.

Credentials are typically conferred at the undergraduate level; however, university-affiliated schools like the École de technologie supérieure and the École Polytechnique de Montréal (both of which are located in Quebec), also offer graduate and postgraduate programs, in accordance with provincial higher education guidelines. Canadian higher education institutions, at all levels, undertake directed and applied research with financing allocated through public funding, private equity, or industry sources.

Some of Canada's most esteemed colleges and polytechnic institutions also partake in collaborative institute-industry projects, leading to technology commercialization, made possible through the scope of Polytechnics Canada, a national alliance of eleven leading research-intensive colleges and institutes of technology.

Affiliate schools
Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes


China's modern higher education began in 1895 with the Imperial Tientsin University which was a polytechnic plus a law department. Liberal arts were not offered until three years later at Capital University. To this day, about half of China's elite universities remain essentially polytechnical.



In Croatia there are many polytechnic institutes and colleges that offer a polytechnic education. The law about polytechnic education in Croatia was passed in 1997.

Polytechnic institutions

Czech Republic

Technical universities
Founding decree of the Czech Technical University in Prague from January 18, 1707
Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU in Prague
Research institutions
Technical faculties at universities


Dominican Republic


EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. The Geophysics Institute [11][12] monitors the country's seismic, tectonic and volcanic activity in the continental territory and in the Galápagos Islands.

One of the oldest observatories in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory. It was founded in 1873 and located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located in the Historic Center of Quito and is managed by the National Polytechnic School.[13][14]

The Nuclear Science Department at EPN is the only one in Ecuador and has the large infrastructure, related to irrradiation facilities like cobalt-60 source and electron beam processing.



Universities of technology

Universities of technology are categorised as universities, are allowed to grant B.Sc. (Tech.), M.Sc. (Tech.), Lic.Sc. (Tech.), Ph.D. and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees and roughly correspond to Instituts de technologie of French-speaking areas and Technische Universität of Germany in prestige. In addition to universities of technology, some universities, e.g. University of Oulu and Åbo Akademi University, are allowed to grant the B.Sc. (tech.), M.Sc. (tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees.

Universities of technology are academically similar to other (non-polytechnic) universities. Prior to Bologna process, M.Sc. (Tech.) required 180 credits, whereas M.Sc. from a normal university required 160 credits. The credits between universities of technology and normal universities are comparable.

Some Finnish universities of technology are:


Polytechnic schools are distinct from academic universities in Finland. Ammattikorkeakoulu is the common term in Finland, as is the Swedish alternative "yrkeshögskola" – their focus is on studies leading to a degree (for instance insinööri, engineer; in international use, Bachelor of Engineering) in kind different from but in level comparable to an academic bachelor's degree awarded by a university. Since 2006 the polytechnics have offered studies leading to master's degrees (Master of Engineering). After January 1, 2006, some Finnish ammattikorkeakoulus switched the English term "polytechnic" to the term "university of applied sciences" in the English translations of their legal names. The ammattikorkeakoulu has many similarities to the hogeschool in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas.

Some recognized Finnish polytechnics are:

A complete list may be found in List of polytechnics in Finland.

France and Francophone regions

Instituts de technologie (grandes écoles)

Collegiate universities grouping several engineering schools or multi-site clusters of French grandes écoles provide sciences and technology curricula as autonomous higher education engineering institutes. They include:

They provide science and technology master's degrees and doctoral degrees.

'Universités technologiques / instituts universitaires de technologie / polytechs

French education system also includes three universities of technology:

In addition, France's education system includes many institutes of technology, embedded within most French universities. They are referred-to as institut universitaire de technologie (IUT). Instituts universitaires de technologie provide undergraduate technology curricula. 'Polytech institutes', embedded as a part of eleven French universities provide both undergraduate and graduate engineering curricula.

In the French-speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term haute école specialisée for a type of institution called Fachhochschule in the German-speaking part of the country. (see below).

Écoles polytechniques

Higher education systems, that are influenced by the French education system set at the end of the 18th century, use a terminology derived by reference to the French École polytechnique. Such terms include Écoles Polytechniques (Algeria, Belgium, Canada, France, Switzerland, Tunisia), Escola Politécnica (Brasil, Spain), Polytechnicum (Eastern Europe).

In French language, higher education refers to écoles polytechniques, providing science and engineering curricula:


Main article: Fachhochschule

Fachhochschulen were first founded in the early 1970s. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees, and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.

In 2009/10, there existed about 200 Fachhochschulen in Germany.[15] See the German Wikipedia for a list.

Technische Universität

Technische Universität (abbreviation: TU) is the common term for universities of technology or technical university. These institutions can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research.

The nine largest and most renowned Technische Universitäten in Germany have formed TU9 German Institutes of Technology as community of interests. Technische Universitäten normally have faculties or departements of natural sciences and often of economics but can also have units of cultural and social sciences and arts. RWTH Aachen, TU Dresden and TU München also have a faculty of medicine associated with university hospitals (Klinikum Aachen, University Hospital Dresden, Rechts der Isar Hospital).

There are 17 universities of technology in Germany with about 290,000 students enrolled. The four states of Bremen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein are not operating a Technische Universität. Saxony and Lower Saxony have the highest counts of TUs, while in Saxony three out of four universities are universities of technology.

List of Technische Universitäten in Germany
Name Land Foundation Students Notes
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH Aachen) North Rhine-Westphalia 1870 35,813 member of TU9
Berlin Institute of Technology Berlin 1770 29,234 member of TU9
Brandenburg University of Technology Brandenburg 1991 6,400 in Cottbus
Technische Universität Braunschweig
Lower Saxony 1745 15,500 member of TU9, oldest TU in Germany
Chemnitz University of Technology Saxony 1836 10,850
Clausthal University of Technology Lower Saxony 1775 4,080
Technische Universität Darmstadt Hesse 1877 23,100 member of TU9
Technische Universität Dresden Saxony 1828 36,534 member of TU9, largest TU in Germany by students enrolled
TU Dortmund University North Rhine-Westphalia 1968 24,873
Freiberg University of Mining and Technology Saxony 1765 5,000 the world's oldest university of mining and second oldest institution of higher technological education
Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg Hamburg 1978 5,100
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover Lower Saxony 1831 22,236 member of TU9
Technische Universität Ilmenau Thuringia 1894 7,200
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern Rhineland-Palatinate 1970 12,510
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Baden-Württemberg 1825 22,552 member of TU9
Technische Universität München Bavaria 1868 38,000 member of TU9
University of Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 1829 22,632 member of TU9

Some universities in Germany can also be seen as institutes of technology due to comprising a wide spread of technical sciences and having a history as a technical university. Examples are


In Greece, there are 2 "Polytechnics" part of the public higher education in Greece and they confer a 5-year Diplom Uni (300E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A), the National Technical University of Athens and the Technical University of Crete. Also, there are Greek Higher Technological Educational Institutes (Ανώτατα Τεχνολογικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα – Α.T.E.I). After the N.1404/1983 Higher Education Reform Act (Ν.1404/1983 - 2916/2001 - Ν. 3549/2007 - N. 3685/2008 - N. 4009/2011) the Technological Educational Institute constitute, a parallel and equivalent with universities part of the public higher education in Greece. They confer 4-year bachelor's degree (Diplom FH) (240E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A).

Hong Kong

The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). The second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994, and renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong respectively. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991.


The world's first[16][17] Institute of Technology the Berg-Schola (Bergschule) established in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary by the Court Chamber of Vienna in 1735 providing Further education to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining. In 1762 the institute ranked up to be Academia[18][19] providing Higher Education courses. After the Treaty of Trianon the institute had to be moved to Sopron.[20]


There are 16 autonomous Indian Institutes of Technology in addition to 30 National Institutes of Technology which are Government Institutions. In addition to these there are many other Universities which offer higher technical courses. The Authority over technical education in India is the AICTE.

The Indian Institutes of Technology
The National Institutes of Technology

In India there are many polytechnic institutes and collages that offer a polytechnic education. In India a Diploma in Engineering is a specific academic award usually awarded in technical or vocational courses e.g. Engineering, Pharmacy, Designing, etc. These Institutions offer three year diploma in engineering post Tenth class. These institutes have affiliation from state bord of technical education of respective state governments. after which one can apply for post of junior engineer or continue higher studies by appearing for exams of AMIE to become an engineering graduate.


There are four public institutes of technology in Indonesia that owned by the government of Indonesia. Other than that, there are hundreds other institute that owned by private or other institutions.

Four public institutes are:

Politeknik provides vocational education offers either three-year Diploma degrees, which is similar to an associate degree, or four-year bachelor's degree. The more advanced Master's and doctoral degrees are still in progress.


There are 18 technological universities in Iran.



Ireland has an "Institute of Technology" system, formerly referred to as Regional Technical College (RTCs) system. The abbreviation IT is now widely used to refer to an Institute of Technology. These institutions offer sub-degree, degree and post-graduate level studies. Unlike the Irish university system an Institute of Technology also offers sub-degree programmes such as 2-year Higher Certificate programme in various academic fields of study. Some institutions have "delegated authority" that allows them to make awards in their own name, after authorisation by the Higher Education & Training Awards Council.

Dublin Institute of Technology developed separately from the Regional Technical College system, and after several decades of association with the University of Dublin, Trinity College it acquired the authority to confer its own degrees.

The IOTI, is the representative body for the various Institutes of Technology in Ireland.[26]



In Italy, the term "technical institute" generally refers to a secondary school which offers a five-year course granting the access to the university system.[27]

In higher education, Politecnico refers to a technical university awarding degrees in engineering. Historically there were two Politecnici, one in each of the two largest industrial cities of the north:

A third Politecnico was added in the south in 1990:

However, many other universities have a faculty of engineering.

In 2003, the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the Ministry of Economy and Finance jointly established the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology), headquartered in Genoa with 10 laboratories around Italy, which however focuses on research, not entirely in the fields of engineering, and does not offer undergraduate degrees.



In Japan, an institute of technology (工業大学 kōgyō daigaku) is a type of university that specializes in the sciences. See also the Imperial College of Engineering, which was the forerunner of the University of Tokyo's engineering faculty.




Polytechnics in Malaysia has been operated for almost 44 years. The institutions provide courses for bachelor's degree & Bachelor of Science (BSc) (offer at Premier Polytechnics for September 2013 intake & 2014 intake), Advanced Diploma, Diploma and Special Skills Certificate. It was established by the Ministry of Education with the help of UNESCO in 1969. The amount of RM24.5 million is used to fund the pioneer of Politeknik Ungku Omar located in Ipoh, Perak from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

At present, Malaysia have developed 32 polytechnic at all over states in engineering, agriculture, commerce, hospitality and design courses with 60,840 students in 2009 to 87,440 students in 2012.

The following is a list of the polytechnics in Malaysia in order of establishment:-

Official Name in Malay Acronym Foundation Type Location
Politeknik Ungku Omar PUO 1969 Premier Polytechnic (University Status) Ipoh, Perak
Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah POLISAS 1976 Conventional Polytechnic Kuantan, Pahang
Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah POLIMAS 1984 Conventional Polytechnic Jitra, Kedah
Politeknik Kota Bharu PKB 1985 Conventional Polytechnic Ketereh, Kelantan
Politeknik Kuching Sarawak PKS 1987 Conventional Polytechnic Kuching, Sarawak
Politeknik Port Dickson PPD 1990 Conventional Polytechnic Si Rusa, Negeri Sembilan
Politeknik Kota Kinabalu PKK 1996 Conventional Polytechnic Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah PSA 1997 Premier Polytechnic (University Status) Shah Alam, Selangor
Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan PIS 1998 Premier Polytechnic (University Status) Pasir Gudang, Johor
Politeknik Seberang Perai PSP 1998 Conventional Polytechnic Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang
Politeknik Melaka PMK 1999 Conventional Polytechnic Melaka
Politeknik Kuala Terengganu PKKT 1999 Conventional Polytechnic Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu
Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin PSMZA 2001 Conventional Polytechnic Dungun, Terengganu
Politeknik Merlimau PMM 2002 Conventional Polytechnic Merlimau, Melaka
Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah PSAS 2002 Conventional Polytechnic Behrang, Perak
Politeknik Tuanku Sultanah Bahiyah PTSB 2002 Conventional Polytechnic Kulim, Kedah
Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah PSIS 2003 Conventional Polytechnic Sungai Air Tawar, Selangor
Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin PTSS 2003 Conventional Polytechnic Arau, Perlis
Politeknik Muadzam Shah PMS 2003 Conventional Polytechnic Muadzam Shah, Pahang
Politeknik Mukah Sarawak PMU 2004 Conventional Polytechnic Mukah, Sarawak
Politeknik Balik Pulau PBU 2007 Conventional Polytechnic Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang
Politeknik Jeli PJK 2007 Conventional Polytechnic Jeli, Kelantan
Politeknik Nilai PNS 2007 Conventional Polytechnic Negeri Sembilan
Politeknik Banting PBS 2007 Conventional Polytechnic Kuala Langat, Selangor
Politeknik Mersing PMJ 2008 Conventional Polytechnic Mersing, Johor
Politeknik Hulu Terengganu PHT 2008 Conventional Polytechnic Kuala Berang, Terengganu
Politeknik Sandakan PSS 2009 Conventional Polytechnic Sandakan, Sabah
Politeknik METrO Kuala Lumpur PMKL 2011 METrO Polytechnic Kuala Lumpur
Politeknik METrO Kuantan PMKU 2011 METrO Polytechnic Kuantan, Pahang
Politeknik METrO Johor Bahru PMJB 2011 METrO Polytechnic Johor Bahru, Johor
Politeknik METrO Betong PMBS 2012 METrO Polytechnic Kuching, Sarawak
Politeknik METrO Tasek Gelugor PMTG 2012 METrO Polytechnic George Town, Pulau Pinang
Politeknik Pagoh TBD 2013 Conventional Polytechnic Muar, Johor
Technical University

There are 4 technical universities in Malaysia, and all are belongs to Malaysian Technical University Network:


The only technical university in Mauritius is the University of Technology, Mauritius with its main campus situated in La Tour Koenig, Pointe aux Sables. It has a specialized mission with a technology focus. It applies traditional and beyond traditional approaches to teaching, training, research and consultancy. The university has been founded with the aim to play a key role in the economic and social development of Mauritius through the development of programmes of direct relevance to the country’s needs, for example in areas like technology, sustainable development science, and public sector policy and management.


New Zealand

New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended, and are considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with universities, colleges of education, and wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of Tertiary Education Institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology' which is a term recognized in government strategies equal to that of the term 'polytechnic'. One has opted for the name 'Universal College of Learning' (UCOL), and another 'Unitec New Zealand'. These are legal names but not recognized terms like 'polytechnic' or 'institute of technology'. Many if not all now grant at least bachelor-level degrees.

Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.)

The Auckland University of Technology is the only polytechnic to have been elevated to university status; while Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked by government policy and consequent decisions; Unitec has not been able to convince the courts to overturn these decisions.


Virtually every state in Nigeria has a polytechnic university operated by either the federal or state government. In Rivers State for example, there are two state-owned polytechnic universities; Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori City and the Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Port Harcourt. The former was established on 13 May 1988 while the latter–though founded in 1984–was approved by the NBTE in 2006. The first private polytechnic university in the state is the Eastern Polytechnic, established in 2008.


The Polytechnic institutes in Pakistan, offer a diploma spanning three years in different branches. Students are admitted to the diploma program based on their results in the 10th grade standardized exams. The main purpose of Polytechnic Institutes is to train people in various trades.

Achievements in the field of Technical Education.

Some people in the world are institutions by themselves.

One name from them is Engr. Syed Waji-ul-Husnain Sherazi who has done lot of work for his country on National and International Level. He has developed a curriculum for three year educational program DAE Information & Communication Technology not only recognized by the Govt. of Pakistan but also recognized by the Govt. Organization of England.

These institutes are located throughout Pakistan and have been in service since early 1950s.

After successfully completing a diploma at a polytechnic, students can gain lateral entry to engineering degree (under graduate) courses called BE, which are conducted by engineering colleges affiliated to universities or University of Engineering & Technology or University of Engineering Sciences.

University of Engineering & Technology or University of Engineering Sciences are the recognized universities that grant Bachelor's and master's degrees in undergraduate and graduate studies respectively. The Bachelor of Science degree awarded by Universities of Engineering & Technology or University of Engineering Sciences are 4 years full-time program after finishing 13 years of education (international high school certificate) in Pakistan known as F.Sc equivalent to British system A-Level.

List of Technical colleges in Pakistan.



Politechnika (translated as a "technical university" or "university of technology") is a main kind of technical university name in Poland. There are some biggest Polytechnic in Poland:

Other polytechnical universities:


The designation "Institute of Technology" is not applied at all, being meaningless in Portugal. However, there are a number of non-university higher educational institutions which are called polytechnic institutes since the 1970s. Some of these institutions existed since the 19th century with different designations (industrial and commercial institutes, agricultural managers, elementary teachers and nurses schools, etc.). In theory, the polytechnics higher education system is aimed to provide a more practical training and be profession-oriented, while the university higher education system is aimed to have a stronger theoretical basis and be highly research-oriented. The polytechnics are also oriented to provide shorter length studies aimed to respond to local needs. The Portuguese polytechnics can then be compared to the US community colleges.

Since the implementation of Bologna Process in Portugal in 2007, the polytechnics offer the 1st cycle (licentiate degree) and 2nd cycle (master's degree) of higher studies. Until 1998, the polytechnics only awarded bachelor (Portuguese: bacharelato) degrees (three-year short-cycle degrees) and were not authorized to award higher degrees. They however granted post-bachelor diplomas in specialized higher studies (DESE, diploma de estudos superiores especializados), that could be obtained after the conclusion of a two-year second cycle of studies and were academical equivalent to the university's licentiate degrees (licenciatura). After 1998, they started to be allowed to confer their own licentiate degrees, which replaced the DESE diplomas.




Polytechnics in Singapore provides industry oriented education equivalent to a junior college or sixth form college in the UK. Singapore retains a system similar but not the same as in the United Kingdom from 1970–1992, distinguishing between polytechnics and universities. Unlike the British Polytechnic (United Kingdom) system Singapore Polytechnics do not offer bachelors, masters or PhD degrees. Under this system, most Singaporean students sit for their O-Level examinations after a four or five years of education in secondary school, and apply for a place at either a technical school termed ITE, a polytechnic or a university-preparatory school (a junior college or the Millennia Institute, a centralized institute). Polytechnic graduates may be granted transfer credits when they apply to local and overseas universities, depending on the overall performance in their grades, as well as the university's policies on transfer credits. A few secondary schools are now offering six-year program which leads directly to university entrance.

Polytechnics offer three-year diploma courses in fields such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields, like psychology and nursing. There are 5 polytechnics in Singapore. They are namely:


The world's first institution of technology or technical university with tertiary technical education is the Banská Akadémia in Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia,[17] founded in 1735, Academy since December 13, 1762 established by queen Maria Theresa in order to train specialists of silver and gold mining and metallurgy in neighbourhood. Teaching started in 1764. Later the department of Mathematics, Mechanics and Hydraulics and department of Forestry were settled. University buildings are still at their place today and are used for teaching. University has launched the first book of electrotechnics in the world.

South Africa

South Africa has completed a process of transforming its "higher education landscape". Historically a division has existed in South Africa between Universities and Technikons (polytechnics) as well between institutions servicing particular racial and language groupings. In 1993 Technikons were afforded the power to award certain technology degrees. Beginning in 2004 former Technikons have either been merged with traditional Universities to form Comprehensive Universities or have become Universities of Technology, however the Universities of Technology have not to date acquired all of the traditional rights and privileges of a University (such as the ability to confer a wide range of degrees).[28]

Sri Lanka

university of moratuwa University of Vocational Technology



Most of Thailand's institutes of technology were developed from technical colleges, in the past could not grant bachelor's degrees; today, however, they are university level institutions, some of which can grant degrees to the doctoral level. Examples are Pathumwan Institute of Technology (developed from Pathumwan Technical School), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (Nondhaburi Telecommunications Training Centre), and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (Thai-German Technical School).

There are two former institutes of technology, which already changed their name to "University of Technology": Rajamangala University of Technology (formerly Institute of Technology and Vocational Education) and King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Thonburi Technology Institute).

Institutes of technology with different origins are Asian Institute of Technology, which developed from SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, and Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, an engineering school of Thammasat University. Suranaree University of Technology is the only government-owned technological university in Thailand that was established (1989) as such; while Mahanakorn University of Technology is the most well known private technological institute. Technology/Technical colleges in Thailand is associated with bitter rivalries which erupts into frequent off-campus brawls and assassinations of students in public locations that has been going on for nearly a decade, with innocent bystanders also commonly among the injured[29] and the military under martial law still unable to stop them from occurring.[30]


In Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, the oldest technical university is Istanbul Technical University. Its graduates contributed to a wide variety of activities in scientific research and development. In 1950s, 2 technical universities were opened in Ankara and Trabzon. In recent years, Yildiz University is reorganized as Yildiz Technical University and 2 institutes of technology were founded in Kocaeli and Izmir. In 2010, another technical university named Bursa Technical University was founded in Bursa. Moreover, a sixth technical university is about to be opened in Konya named Konya Technical University.

List of Technical Universities in Turkey
Name City Foundation Students Notes
Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Istanbul 1773 21000 Ranked 108th in THES QS University ranking in the field of technology
Yıldız Technical University (YTU) Istanbul 1911 21000
Karadeniz Technical University (KTU) Trabzon 1955 First technical university in Turkey outside Istanbul
Middle East Technical University (ODTU) Ankara 1956 23000 ODTU is the best university in Middle East. Ranked 100 in Times Higher Education.
Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE) Kocaeli 1992
İzmir Institute of Technology (IYTE) Izmir 1992
Bursa Technical University (BTU) Bursa 2010
Erzurum Technical University (ETU) Erzurum 2010
Adana Science and Technology University (ABTU) Adana 2011


United Kingdom

Polytechnics were tertiary education teaching institutions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Since 1965 UK Polytechnics operated under the binary system of education along with universities. Polytechnics offered diplomas and degrees (bachelor's, master's, PhD) validated at the national level by the UK Council for National Academic Awards CNAA. They particularly excelled in engineering and applied science degree courses similar to technological universities in the USA and continental Europe. The comparable institutions in Scotland were collectively referred to as Central Institutions. Britain's first Polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution later known as the Polytechnic of Central London (now the University of Westminster) was established in 1838 at Regent Street in London and its goal was to educate and popularize engineering and scientific knowledge and inventions in Victorian Britain "at little expense." The London Polytechnic led a mass movement to create numerous Polytechnic institutes across the UK in the late 19th Century. Most Polytechnic institutes were established at the centre of major metropolitan cities and their focus was on engineering, applied science and technology education.

In 1956, some colleges of technology received the designation College of Advanced Technology. They became universities in the 1960s meaning they could award their own degrees. The designation "Institute of Technology" was occasionally used by polytechnics (Bolton), Central Institutions (Dundee, Robert Gordon's), and postgraduate universities, (Cranfield and Wessex), most of which later adopted the designation University, and there were two "Institutes of Science and Technology": UMIST and UWIST, part of the University of Wales. Loughborough University was called Loughborough University of Technology from 1966 to 1996, the only institution in the UK to have had such a designation.

Polytechnics were granted university status under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. This meant that Polytechnics could confer degrees without the oversight of the national CNAA organization. These institutions are sometimes referred to as post-1992 universities.

Institutions called "technical institutes" or "technical schools" that were formed in the early 20th century provided further education between high school and University or Polytechnic. Most technical institutes have been merged into regional colleges and some have been designated university colleges if they are associated with a local university.

United States

Polytechnic institutes are technological universities, many dating back to the mid-19th century. A handful of world-renowned elite American universities include the phrases "Institute of Technology", "Polytechnic Institute", "Polytechnic University", or similar phrasing in their names; these are generally research-intensive universities with a focus on engineering, science and technology. The earliest and most famous of these institutions are, respectively, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI, 1824), New York University Tandon School of Engineering (1854), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, 1861), and Stevens Institute of Technology (1870). Conversely, schools dubbed "technical colleges" or "technical institutes" generally provide post-secondary training in technical and mechanical fields, focusing on training vocational skills primarily at a community college level, parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first two years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution.


Institutes of technology in Venezuela were developed in the 1950s as an option for post-secondary education in technical and scientific courses, after the polytechnic French concepts. At that time, technical education was considered essential for the development of a sound middle class economy.

Nowadays, most of the Institutos de Tecnología are privately run businesses, with varying degrees of quality.

Most of these institutes award diplomas after three or three and a half years of education. The institute of technology implementation (IUT, from Instituto universitario de tecnologia in Spanish) began with the creation of the first IUT at Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela, called IUT. Dr. Federico Rivero Palacio adopted the French "Institut Universitaire de Technologie"s system, using French personnel and study system based on three-year periods, with research and engineering facilities at the same level as the main national universities to obtain French equivalent degrees. This IUT is the first and only one in Venezuela having French equivalent degrees accepted, implementing this system and observing the high-level degrees some other IUTs were created in Venezuela, regardless of this the term IUT was not used appropriately resulting in some institutions with mediocre quality and no equivalent degree in France. Later, some private institutions sprang up using IUT in their names, but they are not regulated by the original French system and award lower quality degrees.


See also


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  29. "Schools will face action over student brawls". The Nation. 19 August 2011.
  30. Tech students' brawl shuts concert | Bangkok Post: news
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