Uniform 4-polytope
In geometry, a uniform 4-polytope is a 4-polytope which is vertex-transitive and whose cells are uniform polyhedra, and faces are regular polygons.
47 non-prismatic convex uniform 4-polytopes, one finite set of convex prismatic forms, and two infinite sets of convex prismatic forms have been described. There are also an unknown number of non-convex star forms.
History of discovery
- Convex Regular polytopes:
- 1852: Ludwig Schläfli proved in his manuscript Theorie der vielfachen Kontinuität that there are exactly 6 regular polytopes in 4 dimensions and only 3 in 5 or more dimensions.
- Regular star 4-polytopes (star polyhedron cells and/or vertex figures)
- 1852: Ludwig Schläfli also found 4 of the 10 regular star 4-polytopes, discounting 6 with cells or vertex figures {5/2,5} and {5,5/2}.
- 1883: Edmund Hess completed the list of 10 of the nonconvex regular 4-polytopes, in his book (in German) Einleitung in die Lehre von der Kugelteilung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anwendung auf die Theorie der Gleichflächigen und der gleicheckigen Polyeder .
- Convex semiregular polytopes: (Various definitions before Coxeter's uniform category)
- 1900: Thorold Gosset enumerated the list of nonprismatic semiregular convex polytopes with regular cells (Platonic solids) in his publication On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions.^{[1]}
- 1910: Alicia Boole Stott, in her publication Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings, expanded the definition by also allowing Archimedean solid and prism cells. This construction enumerated 45 semiregular 4-polytopes.^{[2]}
- 1911: Pieter Hendrik Schoute published Analytic treatment of the polytopes regularly derived from the regular polytopes, followed Boole-Stott's notations, enumerating the convex uniform polytopes by symmetry based on 5-cell, 8-cell/16-cell, and 24-cell.
- 1912: E. L. Elte independently expanded on Gosset's list with the publication The Semiregular Polytopes of the Hyperspaces, polytopes with one or two types of semiregular facets.^{[3]}
- Convex uniform polytopes:
- 1940: The search was expanded systematically by H.S.M. Coxeter in his publication Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes.
- Convex uniform 4-polytopes:
- 1965: The complete list of convex forms was finally enumerated by John Horton Conway and Michael Guy, in their publication Four-Dimensional Archimedean Polytopes, established by computer analysis, adding only one non-Wythoffian convex 4-polytope, the grand antiprism.
- 1966 Norman Johnson completes his Ph.D. dissertation The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs under advisor Coxeter, completes the basic theory of uniform polytopes for dimensions 4 and higher.
- 1986 Coxeter published a paper Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II which included analysis of the unique snub 24-cell structure, and the symmetry of the anomalous grand antiprism.
- 1998^{[4]}-2000: The 4-polytopes were systematically named by Norman Johnson, and given by George Olshevsky's online indexed enumeration (used as a basis for this listing). Johnson named the 4-polytopes as polychora, like polyhedra for 3-polytopes, from the Greek roots poly ("many") and choros ("room" or "space").^{[5]} The names of the uniform polychora started with the 6 regular polychora with prefixes based on rings in the Coxeter diagrams; truncation t_{0,1}, cantellation, t_{0,2}, runcination t_{0,3}, with single ringed forms called rectified, and bi,tri-prefixes added when the first ring was on the second or third nodes.^{[6]}^{[7]}
- 2004: A proof that the Conway-Guy set is complete was published by Marco Möller in his dissertation, Vierdimensionale Archimedische Polytope. Möller reproduced Johnson's naming system in his listing.^{[8]}
- 2008: The Symmetries of Things^{[9]} was published by John H. Conway contains the first print-published listing of the convex uniform 4-polytopes and higher dimensions by coxeter group family, with general vertex figure diagrams for each ringed Coxeter diagram permutation, snub, grand antiprism, and duoprisms which he called proprisms for product prisms. He used his own ijk-ambo naming scheme for the indexed ring permutations beyond truncation and bitruncation, with all of Johnson's names were included in the book index.
- Nonregular uniform star 4-polytopes: (similar to the nonconvex uniform polyhedra)
- 2000-2005: In a collaborative search, up to 2005 a total of 1845 uniform 4-polytopes (convex and nonconvex) had been identified by Jonathan Bowers and George Olshevsky.^{[10]}
Regular 4-polytopes
Regular 4-polytopes are a subset of the uniform 4-polytopes, which satisfy additional requirements. Regular 4-polytopes can be expressed with Schläfli symbol {p,q,r} have cells of type , faces of type {p}, edge figures {r}, and vertex figures {q,r}.
The existence of a regular 4-polytope {p,q,r} is constrained by the existence of the regular polyhedra {p,q} which becomes cells, and {q,r} which becomes the vertex figure.
Existence as a finite 4-polytope is dependent upon an inequality:^{[11]}
The 16 regular 4-polytopes, with the property that all cells, faces, edges, and vertices are congruent:
- 6 regular convex 4-polytopes: 5-cell {3,3,3}, 8-cell {4,3,3}, 16-cell {3,3,4}, 24-cell {3,4,3}, 120-cell {5,3,3}, and 600-cell {3,3,5}.
- 10 regular star 4-polytopes: {3,5,5/2}, {5/2,5,3}, {5,5/2,5}, {5,3,5/2}, {5/2,3,5}, {5/2,5,5/2}, {5,5/2,3}, {3,5/2,5}, {3,3,5/2}, and {5/2,3,3}.
Convex uniform 4-polytopes
Enumeration
There are 64 convex uniform 4-polytopes, including the 6 regular convex 4-polytopes, and excluding the infinite sets of the duoprisms and the antiprismatic hyperprisms.
- 5 are polyhedral prisms based on the Platonic solids (1 overlap with regular since a cubic hyperprism is a tesseract)
- 13 are polyhedral prisms based on the Archimedean solids
- 9 are in the self-dual regular A_{4} [3,3,3] group (5-cell) family.
- 9 are in the self-dual regular F_{4} [3,4,3] group (24-cell) family. (Excluding snub 24-cell)
- 15 are in the regular B_{4} [3,3,4] group (tesseract/16-cell) family (3 overlap with 24-cell family)
- 15 are in the regular H_{4} [3,3,5] group (120-cell/600-cell) family.
- 1 special snub form in the [3,4,3] group (24-cell) family.
- 1 special non-Wythoffian 4-polytopes, the grand antiprism.
- TOTAL: 68 − 4 = 64
These 64 uniform 4-polytopes are indexed below by George Olshevsky. Repeated symmetry forms are indexed in brackets.
In addition to the 64 above, there are 2 infinite prismatic sets that generate all of the remaining convex forms:
- Set of uniform antiprismatic prisms - sr{p,2}×{ } - Polyhedral prisms of two antiprisms.
- Set of uniform duoprisms - {p}×{q} - A product of two polygons.
The A_{4} family
The 5-cell has diploid pentachoric [3,3,3] symmetry,^{[6]} of order 120, isomorphic to the permutations of five elements, because all pairs of vertices are related in the same way.
Facets (cells) are given, grouped in their Coxeter diagram locations by removing specified nodes.
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (5) |
Pos. 2 (10) |
Pos. 1 (10) |
Pos. 0 (5) |
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
1 | 5-cell pentachoron^{[6]} |
{3,3,3} |
(4) (3.3.3) |
5 | 10 | 10 | 5 | ||||
2 | rectified 5-cell | r{3,3,3} |
(3) (3.3.3.3) |
(2) (3.3.3) |
10 | 30 | 30 | 10 | |||
3 | truncated 5-cell | t{3,3,3} |
(3) (3.6.6) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
10 | 30 | 40 | 20 | |||
4 | cantellated 5-cell | rr{3,3,3} |
(2) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
20 | 80 | 90 | 30 | ||
7 | cantitruncated 5-cell | tr{3,3,3} |
(2) (4.6.6) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
20 | 80 | 120 | 60 | ||
8 | runcitruncated 5-cell | t_{0,1,3}{3,3,3} |
(1) (3.6.6) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
30 | 120 | 150 | 60 |
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3-0 (10) |
Pos. 1-2 (20) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
5 | *runcinated 5-cell | t_{0,3}{3,3,3} |
(2) (3.3.3) |
(6) (3.4.4) |
30 | 70 | 60 | 20 | ||
6 | *bitruncated 5-cell decachoron |
2t{3,3,3} |
(4) (3.6.6) |
10 | 40 | 60 | 30 | |||
9 | *omnitruncated 5-cell | t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,3} |
(2) (4.6.6) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
30 | 150 | 240 | 120 | ||
Nonuniform | omnisnub 5-cell^{[12]} | ht_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,3} |
(2) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(2) (3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
90 | 300 | 270 | 60 |
The three uniform 4-polytopes forms marked with an asterisk, *, have the higher extended pentachoric symmetry, of order 240, 3,3,3 because the element corresponding to any element of the underlying 5-cell can be exchanged with one of those corresponding to an element of its dual. There is one small index subgroup [3,3,3]^{+}, order 60, or its doubling 3,3,3^{+}, order 120, defining a omnisnub 5-cell which is listed for completeness, but is not uniform.
The B_{4} family
This family has diploid hexadecachoric symmetry,^{[6]} [4,3,3], of order 24×16=384: 4!=24 permutations of the four axes, 2^{4}=16 for reflection in each axis. There are 3 small index subgroups, with the first two generate uniform 4-polytopes which are also repeated in other families, [1^{+},4,3,3], [4,(3,3)^{+}], and [4,3,3]^{+}, all order 192.
Tesseract truncations
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (8) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. 1 (32) |
Pos. 0 (16) |
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | |||||
10 | tesseract or 8-cell |
{4,3,3} |
(4) (4.4.4) |
8 | 24 | 32 | 16 | |||||
11 | Rectified tesseract | r{4,3,3} |
(3) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (3.3.3) |
24 | 88 | 96 | 32 | ||||
13 | Truncated tesseract | t{4,3,3} |
(3) (3.8.8) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
24 | 88 | 128 | 64 | ||||
14 | Cantellated tesseract | rr{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.4.4.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
56 | 248 | 288 | 96 | |||
15 | Runcinated tesseract (also runcinated 16-cell) |
t_{0,3}{4,3,3} |
(1) (4.4.4) |
(3) (4.4.4) |
(3) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
80 | 208 | 192 | 64 | ||
16 | Bitruncated tesseract (also bitruncated 16-cell) |
2t{4,3,3} |
(2) (4.6.6) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
24 | 120 | 192 | 96 | ||||
18 | Cantitruncated tesseract | tr{4,3,3} |
(2) (4.6.8) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
56 | 248 | 384 | 192 | |||
19 | Runcitruncated tesseract | t_{0,1,3}{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.8.8) |
(2) (4.4.8) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
80 | 368 | 480 | 192 | ||
21 | Omnitruncated tesseract (also omnitruncated 16-cell) |
t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,4} |
(1) (4.6.8) |
(1) (4.4.8) |
(1) (4.4.6) |
(1) (4.6.6) |
80 | 464 | 768 | 384 |
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (8) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. 1 (32) |
Pos. 0 (16) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
12 | Half tesseract Demitesseract 16-cell |
= h{4,3,3}={3,3,4} |
(4) (3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
16 | 32 | 24 | 8 | ||||
[17] | Cantic tesseract (Or truncated 16-cell) |
= h_{2}{4,3,3}=t{4,3,3} |
(4) (6.6.3) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
24 | 96 | 120 | 48 | ||||
[11] | Runcic tesseract (Or rectified tesseract) |
= h_{3}{4,3,3}=r{4,3,3} |
(3) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (3.3.3) |
24 | 88 | 96 | 32 | ||||
[16] | Runcicantic tesseract (Or bitruncated tesseract) |
= h_{2,3}{4,3,3}=2t{4,3,3} |
(2) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
24 | 96 | 96 | 24 | ||||
[11] | (rectified tesseract) | = h_{1}{4,3,3}=r{4,3,3} |
24 | 88 | 96 | 32 | ||||||
[16] | (bitruncated tesseract) | = h_{1,2}{4,3,3}=2t{4,3,3} |
24 | 96 | 96 | 24 | ||||||
[23] | (rectified 24-cell) | = h_{1,3}{4,3,3}=rr{3,3,4} |
48 | 240 | 288 | 96 | ||||||
[24] | (truncated 24-cell) | = h_{1,2,3}{4,3,3}=tr{3,3,4} |
48 | 240 | 384 | 192 |
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (8) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. 1 (32) |
Pos. 0 (16) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
Nonuniform | omnisnub tesseract^{[13]} (Or omnisnub 16-cell) |
ht_{0,1,2,3}{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.3.3.3.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
272 | 944 | 864 | 192 |
16-cell truncations
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (8) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. 1 (32) |
Pos. 0 (16) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
[12] | 16-cell, hexadecachoron^{[6]} | {3,3,4} |
(8) (3.3.3) |
16 | 32 | 24 | 8 | |||||
[22] | *rectified 16-cell (Same as 24-cell) |
r{3,3,4} |
(2) (3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3.3) |
24 | 96 | 96 | 24 | ||||
17 | truncated 16-cell | t{3,3,4} |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.6.6) |
24 | 96 | 120 | 48 | ||||
[23] | *cantellated 16-cell (Same as rectified 24-cell) |
rr{3,3,4} |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (4.4.4) |
(2) (3.4.3.4) |
48 | 240 | 288 | 96 | |||
[15] | runcinated 16-cell (also runcinated 8-cell) |
t_{0,3}{3,3,4} |
(1) (4.4.4) |
(3) (4.4.4) |
(3) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
80 | 208 | 192 | 64 | ||
[16] | bitruncated 16-cell (also bitruncated 8-cell) |
2t{3,3,4} |
(2) (4.6.6) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
24 | 120 | 192 | 96 | ||||
[24] | *cantitruncated 16-cell (Same as truncated 24-cell) |
tr{3,3,4} |
(1) (4.6.6) |
(1) (4.4.4) |
(2) (4.6.6) |
48 | 240 | 384 | 192 | |||
20 | runcitruncated 16-cell | t_{0,1,3}{3,3,4} |
(1) (3.4.4.4) |
(1) (4.4.4) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
80 | 368 | 480 | 192 | ||
[21] | omnitruncated 16-cell (also omnitruncated 8-cell) |
t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,4} |
(1) (4.6.8) |
(1) (4.4.8) |
(1) (4.4.6) |
(1) (4.6.6) |
80 | 464 | 768 | 384 | ||
[31] | alternated cantitruncated 16-cell (Same as the snub 24-cell) |
sr{3,3,4} |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
(2) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
144 | 480 | 432 | 96 | ||
Nonuniform | Runcic snub rectified 16-cell | sr_{3}{3,3,4} |
(1) (3.4.4.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (4.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
176 | 656 | 672 | 192 |
- (*) Just as rectifying the tetrahedron produces the octahedron, rectifying the 16-cell produces the 24-cell, the regular member of the following family.
The snub 24-cell is repeat to this family for completeness. It is an alternation of the cantitruncated 16-cell or truncated 24-cell, with the half symmetry group [(3,3)^{+},4]. The truncated octahedral cells become icosahedra. The cubes becomes tetrahedra, and 96 new tetrahedra are created in the gaps from the removed vertices.
The F_{4} family
This family has diploid icositetrachoric symmetry,^{[6]} [3,4,3], of order 24×48=1152: the 48 symmetries of the octahedron for each of the 24 cells. There are 3 small index subgroups, with the first two isomorphic pairs generating uniform 4-polytopes which are also repeated in other families, [3^{+},4,3], [3,4,3^{+}], and [3,4,3]^{+}, all order 576.
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (24) |
Pos. 2 (96) |
Pos. 1 (96) |
Pos. 0 (24) |
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
22 | 24-cell, icositetrachoron^{[6]} (Same as rectified 16-cell) |
{3,4,3} |
(6) (3.3.3.3) |
24 | 96 | 96 | 24 | ||||
23 | rectified 24-cell (Same as cantellated 16-cell) |
r{3,4,3} |
(3) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (4.4.4) |
48 | 240 | 288 | 96 | |||
24 | truncated 24-cell (Same as cantitruncated 16-cell) |
t{3,4,3} |
(3) (4.6.6) |
(1) (4.4.4) |
48 | 240 | 384 | 192 | |||
25 | cantellated 24-cell | rr{3,4,3} |
(2) (3.4.4.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
144 | 720 | 864 | 288 | ||
28 | cantitruncated 24-cell | tr{3,4,3} |
(2) (4.6.8) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.8.8) |
144 | 720 | 1152 | 576 | ||
29 | runcitruncated 24-cell | t_{0,1,3}{3,4,3} |
(1) (4.6.6) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.4.4) |
240 | 1104 | 1440 | 576 |
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (24) |
Pos. 2 (96) |
Pos. 1 (96) |
Pos. 0 (24) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
31 | †snub 24-cell | s{3,4,3} |
(3) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
144 | 480 | 432 | 96 | |||
Nonuniform | runcic snub 24-cell | s_{3}{3,4,3} |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
(3) Tricup |
240 | 960 | 1008 | 288 | ||
[25] | cantic snub 24-cell (Same as cantellated 24-cell) |
s_{2}{3,4,3} |
(2) (3.4.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
144 | 720 | 864 | 288 | |||
[29] | runcicantic snub 24-cell (Same as runcitruncated 24-cell) |
s_{2,3}{3,4,3} |
(1) (4.6.6) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.4.4) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
240 | 1104 | 1440 | 576 |
- (†) The snub 24-cell here, despite its common name, is not analogous to the snub cube; rather, is derived by an alternation of the truncated 24-cell. Its symmetry number is only 576, (the ionic diminished icositetrachoric group, [3^{+},4,3]).
Like the 5-cell, the 24-cell is self-dual, and so the following three forms have twice as many symmetries, bringing their total to 2304 (extended icositetrachoric symmetry 3,4,3).
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3-0 (48) |
Pos. 2-1 (192) |
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | |||||
26 | runcinated 24-cell | t_{0,3}{3,4,3} |
(2) (3.3.3.3) |
(6) (3.4.4) |
240 | 672 | 576 | 144 | ||
27 | bitruncated 24-cell tetracontoctachoron |
2t{3,4,3} |
(4) (3.8.8) |
48 | 336 | 576 | 288 | |||
30 | omnitruncated 24-cell | t_{0,1,2,3}{3,4,3} |
(2) (4.6.8) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
240 | 1392 | 2304 | 1152 |
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3-0 (48) |
Pos. 2-1 (192) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
Nonuniform | omnisnub 24-cell^{[14]} | ht_{0,1,2,3}{3,4,3} |
(2) (3.3.3.3.4) |
(2) (3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
816 | 2832 | 2592 | 576 |
The H_{4} family
This family has diploid hexacosichoric symmetry,^{[6]} [5,3,3], of order 120×120=24×600=14400: 120 for each of the 120 dodecahedra, or 24 for each of the 600 tetrahedra. There is one small index subgroups [5,3,3]^{+}, all order 7200.
120-cell truncations
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (120) |
Pos. 2 (720) |
Pos. 1 (1200) |
Pos. 0 (600) |
Alt | Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
32 | 120-cell (hecatonicosachoron or dodecacontachoron)^{[6]} |
{5,3,3} |
(4) (5.5.5) |
120 | 720 | 1200 | 600 | |||||
33 | rectified 120-cell | r{5,3,3} |
(3) (3.5.3.5) |
(2) (3.3.3) |
720 | 3120 | 3600 | 1200 | ||||
36 | truncated 120-cell | t{5,3,3} |
(3) (3.10.10) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
720 | 3120 | 4800 | 2400 | ||||
37 | cantellated 120-cell | rr{5,3,3} |
(1) (3.4.5.4) |
(2) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
1920 | 9120 | 10800 | 3600 | |||
38 | runcinated 120-cell (also runcinated 600-cell) |
t_{0,3}{5,3,3} |
(1) (5.5.5) |
(3) (4.4.5) |
(3) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
2640 | 7440 | 7200 | 2400 | ||
39 | bitruncated 120-cell (also bitruncated 600-cell) |
2t{5,3,3} |
(2) (5.6.6) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
720 | 4320 | 7200 | 3600 | ||||
42 | cantitruncated 120-cell | tr{5,3,3} |
(2) (4.6.10) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
1920 | 9120 | 14400 | 7200 | |||
43 | runcitruncated 120-cell | t_{0,1,3}{5,3,3} |
(1) (3.10.10) |
(2) (4.4.10) |
(1) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
2640 | 13440 | 18000 | 7200 | ||
46 | omnitruncated 120-cell (also omnitruncated 600-cell) |
t_{0,1,2,3}{5,3,3} |
(1) (4.6.10) |
(1) (4.4.10) |
(1) (4.4.6) |
(1) (4.6.6) |
2640 | 17040 | 28800 | 14400 | ||
Nonuniform | omnisnub 120-cell^{[15]} (Same as the omnisnub 600-cell) |
ht_{0,1,2,3}{5,3,3} |
(1) (3.3.3.3.5) |
(1) (3.3.3.5) |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
9840 | 35040 | 32400 | 7200 |
600-cell truncations
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 3 (120) |
Pos. 2 (720) |
Pos. 1 (1200) |
Pos. 0 (600) |
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||
35 | 600-cell, hexacosichoron^{[6]} | {3,3,5} |
(20) (3.3.3) |
600 | 1200 | 720 | 120 | ||||
[47] | 20-diminished 600-cell (grand antiprism) |
Nonwythoffian construction order 400 |
(2) (3.3.3.5) |
(12) (3.3.3) |
320 | 720 | 500 | 100 | |||
[31] | 24-diminished 600-cell (snub 24-cell) |
Nonwythoffian construction order 576 |
(3) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(5) (3.3.3) |
144 | 480 | 432 | 96 | |||
Nonuniform | bi-24-diminished 600-cell | Nonwythoffian construction order 144 |
(6) tdi |
48 | 192 | 216 | 72 | ||||
34 | rectified 600-cell | r{3,3,5} |
(2) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(5) (3.3.3.3) |
720 | 3600 | 3600 | 720 | |||
Nonuniform | 120-diminished rectified 600-cell | Nonwythoffian construction order 1200 |
(2) 3.3.3.5 |
(2) 4.4.5 |
(5) P4 |
840 | 2640 | 2400 | 600 | ||
41 | truncated 600-cell | t{3,3,5} |
(1) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(5) (3.6.6) |
720 | 3600 | 4320 | 1440 | |||
40 | cantellated 600-cell | rr{3,3,5} |
(1) (3.5.3.5) |
(2) (4.4.5) |
(1) (3.4.3.4) |
1440 | 8640 | 10800 | 3600 | ||
[38] | runcinated 600-cell (also runcinated 120-cell) |
t_{0,3}{3,3,5} |
(1) (5.5.5) |
(3) (4.4.5) |
(3) (3.4.4) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
2640 | 7440 | 7200 | 2400 | |
[39] | bitruncated 600-cell (also bitruncated 120-cell) |
2t{3,3,5} |
(2) (5.6.6) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
720 | 4320 | 7200 | 3600 | |||
45 | cantitruncated 600-cell | tr{3,3,5} |
(1) (5.6.6) |
(1) (4.4.5) |
(2) (4.6.6) |
1440 | 8640 | 14400 | 7200 | ||
44 | runcitruncated 600-cell | t_{0,1,3}{3,3,5} |
(1) (3.4.5.4) |
(1) (4.4.5) |
(2) (4.4.6) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
2640 | 13440 | 18000 | 7200 | |
[46] | omnitruncated 600-cell (also omnitruncated 120-cell) |
t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,5} |
(1) (4.6.10) |
(1) (4.4.10) |
(1) (4.4.6) |
(1) (4.6.6) |
2640 | 17040 | 28800 | 14400 |
The D_{4} family
This demitesseract family, [3^{1,1,1}], introduces no new uniform 4-polytopes, but it is worthy to repeat these alternative constructions. This family has order 12×16=192: 4!/2=12 permutations of the four axes, half as alternated, 2^{4}=16 for reflection in each axis. There is one small index subgroups that generating uniform 4-polytopes, [3^{1,1,1}]^{+}, order 96.
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram = = |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 0 (8) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. 1 (8) |
Pos. 3 (8) |
Pos. Alt (96) |
3 | 2 | 1 | 0 | ||||
[12] | demitesseract half tesseract (Same as 16-cell) |
= h{4,3,3} |
(4) (3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
16 | 32 | 24 | 8 | ||||
[17] | cantic tesseract (Same as truncated 16-cell) |
= h_{2}{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.3.3.3) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
(2) (3.6.6) |
24 | 96 | 120 | 48 | |||
[11] | runcic tesseract (Same as rectified tesseract) |
= h_{3}{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
(3) (3.4.3.4) |
24 | 88 | 96 | 32 | |||
[16] | runcicantic tesseract (Same as bitruncated tesseract) |
= h_{2,3}{4,3,3} |
(1) (3.6.6) |
(1) (3.6.6) |
(2) (4.6.6) |
24 | 96 | 96 | 24 |
When the 3 bifurcated branch nodes are identically ringed, the symmetry can be increased by 6, as [3[3^{1,1,1}]] = [3,4,3], and thus these polytopes are repeated from the 24-cell family.
# | Name | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram = = |
Cell counts by location | Element counts | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Pos. 0,1,3 (24) |
Pos. 2 (24) |
Pos. Alt (96) |
3 | 2 | 1 | 0 | ||||
[22] | rectified 16-cell) (Same as 24-cell) |
= = = {3^{1,1,1}} = r{3,3,4} = {3,4,3} |
(6) (3.3.3.3) |
48 | 240 | 288 | 96 | |||
[23] | cantellated 16-cell (Same as rectified 24-cell) |
= = = r{3^{1,1,1}} = rr{3,3,4} = r{3,4,3} |
(3) (3.4.3.4) |
(2) (4.4.4) |
24 | 120 | 192 | 96 | ||
[24] | cantitruncated 16-cell (Same as truncated 24-cell) |
= = = t{3^{1,1,1}} = tr{3,3,4} = t{3,4,3} |
(3) (4.6.6) |
(1) (4.4.4) |
48 | 240 | 384 | 192 | ||
[31] | snub 24-cell | = = = s{3^{1,1,1}} = sr{3,3,4} = s{3,4,3} |
(3) (3.3.3.3.3) |
(1) (3.3.3) |
(4) (3.3.3) |
144 | 480 | 432 | 96 |
Here again the snub 24-cell, with the symmetry group [3^{1,1,1}]^{+} this time, represents an alternated truncation of the truncated 24-cell creating 96 new tetrahedra at the position of the deleted vertices. In contrast to its appearance within former groups as partly snubbed 4-polytope, only within this symmetry group it has the full analogy to the Kepler snubs, i.e. the snub cube and the snub dodecahedron.
The grand antiprism
There is one non-Wythoffian uniform convex 4-polytope, known as the grand antiprism, consisting of 20 pentagonal antiprisms forming two perpendicular rings joined by 300 tetrahedra. It is loosely analogous to the three-dimensional antiprisms, which consist of two parallel polygons joined by a band of triangles. Unlike them, however, the grand antiprism is not a member of an infinite family of uniform polytopes.
Its symmetry is the ionic diminished Coxeter group, [[10,2<sup>+</sup>,10]], order 400.
# | Name | Picture | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cells by type | Element counts | Net | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||||||
47 | grand antiprism | No symbol | 300 (3.3.3) |
20 (3.3.3.5) |
320 | 20 {5} 700 {3} |
500 | 100 |
Prismatic uniform 4-polytopes
A prismatic polytope is a Cartesian product of two polytopes of lower dimension; familiar examples are the 3-dimensional prisms, which are products of a polygon and a line segment. The prismatic uniform 4-polytopes consist of two infinite families:
- Polyhedral prisms: products of a line segment and a uniform polyhedron. This family is infinite because it includes prisms built on 3-dimensional prisms and antiprisms.
- Duoprisms: products of two polygons.
Convex polyhedral prisms
The most obvious family of prismatic 4-polytopes is the polyhedral prisms, i.e. products of a polyhedron with a line segment. The cells of such a 4-polytopes are two identical uniform polyhedra lying in parallel hyperplanes (the base cells) and a layer of prisms joining them (the lateral cells). This family includes prisms for the 75 nonprismatic uniform polyhedra (of which 18 are convex; one of these, the cube-prism, is listed above as the tesseract).
There are 18 convex polyhedral prisms created from 5 Platonic solids and 13 Archimedean solids as well as for the infinite families of three-dimensional prisms and antiprisms. The symmetry number of a polyhedral prism is twice that of the base polyhedron.
Tetrahedral prisms: A_{3} × A_{1}
This prismatic tetrahedral symmetry is [3,3,2], order 48. There are two index 2 subgroups, [(3,3)^{+},2] and [3,3,2]^{+}, but the second doesn't generate a uniform 4-polytope.
# | Name | Picture | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cells by type | Element counts | Net | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | |||||||||
48 | Tetrahedral prism | {3,3}×{ } t_{0,3}{3,3,2} |
2 3.3.3 |
4 3.4.4 |
6 | 8 {3} 6 {4} |
16 | 8 | ||||
49 | Truncated tetrahedral prism | t{3,3}×{ } t_{0,1,3}{3,3,2} |
2 3.6.6 |
4 3.4.4 |
4 4.4.6 |
10 | 8 {3} 18 {4} 8 {6} |
48 | 24 |
# | Name | Picture | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cells by type | Element counts | Net | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | |||||||||
[51] | Rectified tetrahedral prism (Same as octahedral prism) |
r{3,3}×{ } t_{1,3}{3,3,2} |
2 3.3.3.3 |
4 3.4.4 |
6 | 16 {3} 12 {4} |
30 | 12 | ||||
[50] | Cantellated tetrahedral prism (Same as cuboctahedral prism) |
rr{3,3}×{ } t_{0,2,3}{3,3,2} |
2 3.4.3.4 |
8 3.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
16 | 16 {3} 36 {4} |
60 | 24 | |||
[54] | Cantitruncated tetrahedral prism (Same as truncated octahedral prism) |
tr{3,3}×{ } t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,2} |
2 4.6.6 |
8 6.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
16 | 48 {4} 16 {6} |
96 | 48 | |||
[59] | Snub tetrahedral prism (Same as icosahedral prism) |
sr{3,3}×{ } |
2 3.3.3.3.3 |
20 3.4.4 |
22 | 40 {3} 30 {4} |
72 | 24 | ||||
Nonuniform | omnisnub tetrahedral antiprism | 2 3.3.3.3.3 |
8 3.3.3.3 |
6+24 3.3.3 |
40 | 16+96 {3} | 96 | 24 |
Octahedral prisms: B_{3} × A_{1}
This prismatic octahedral family symmetry is [4,3,2], order 96. There are 6 subgroups of index 2, order 48 that are expressed in alternated 4-polytopes below. Symmetries are [(4,3)^{+},2], [1^{+},4,3,2], [4,3,2^{+}], [4,3^{+},2], [4,(3,2)^{+}], and [4,3,2]^{+}.
# | Name | Picture | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cells by type | Element counts | Net | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||||||||
[10] | Cubic prism (Same as tesseract) (Same as 4-4 duoprism) |
{4,3}×{ } t_{0,3}{4,3,2} |
2 4.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
8 | 24 {4} | 32 | 16 | |||||
50 | Cuboctahedral prism (Same as cantellated tetrahedral prism) |
r{4,3}×{ } t_{1,3}{4,3,2} |
2 3.4.3.4 |
8 3.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
16 | 16 {3} 36 {4} | 60 | 24 | ||||
51 | Octahedral prism (Same as rectified tetrahedral prism) (Same as triangular antiprismatic prism) |
{3,4}×{ } t_{2,3}{4,3,2} |
2 3.3.3.3 |
8 3.4.4 |
10 | 16 {3} 12 {4} | 30 | 12 | |||||
52 | Rhombicuboctahedral prism | rr{4,3}×{ } t_{0,2,3}{4,3,2} |
2 3.4.4.4 |
8 3.4.4 |
18 4.4.4 |
28 | 16 {3} 84 {4} | 120 | 48 | ||||
53 | Truncated cubic prism | t{4,3}×{ } t_{0,1,3}{4,3,2} |
2 3.8.8 |
8 3.4.4 |
6 4.4.8 |
16 | 16 {3} 36 {4} 12 {8} | 96 | 48 | ||||
54 | Truncated octahedral prism (Same as cantitruncated tetrahedral prism) |
t{3,4}×{ } t_{1,2,3}{4,3,2} |
2 4.6.6 |
6 4.4.4 |
8 4.4.6 |
16 | 48 {4} 16 {6} | 96 | 48 | ||||
55 | Truncated cuboctahedral prism | tr{4,3}×{ } t_{0,1,2,3}{4,3,2} |
2 4.6.8 |
12 4.4.4 |
8 4.4.6 |
6 4.4.8 |
28 | 96 {4} 16 {6} 12 {8} | 192 | 96 | |||
56 | Snub cubic prism | sr{4,3}×{ } |
2 3.3.3.3.4 |
32 3.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
40 | 64 {3} 72 {4} | 144 | 48 | ||||
[48] | Tetrahedral prism | h{4,3}×{ } |
2 3.3.3 |
4 3.4.4 |
6 | 8 {3} 6 {4} | 16 | 8 | |||||
[49] | Truncated tetrahedral prism | h_{2}{4,3}×{ } |
2 3.3.6 |
4 3.4.4 |
4 4.4.6 |
6 | 8 {3} 6 {4} | 16 | 8 | ||||
[50] | Cuboctahedral prism | rr{3,3}×{ } |
2 3.4.3.4 |
8 3.4.4 |
6 4.4.4 |
16 | 16 {3} 36 {4} | 60 | 24 | ||||
[52] | Rhombicuboctahedral prism | s_{2}{3,4}×{ } |
2 3.4.4.4 |
8 3.4.4 |
18 4.4.4 |
28 | 16 {3} 84 {4} | 120 | 48 | ||||
[54] | Truncated octahedral prism | tr{3,3}×{ } |
2 4.6.6 |
6 4.4.4 |
8 4.4.6 |
16 | 48 {4} 16 {6} | 96 | 48 | ||||
[59] | Icosahedral prism | s{3,4}×{ } |
2 3.3.3.3.3 |
20 3.4.4 |
22 | 40 {3} 30 {4} | 72 | 24 | |||||
[12] | 16-cell | s{2,4,3} |
2+6+8 3.3.3.3 |
16 | 32 {3} | 24 | 8 | ||||||
Nonuniform | Omnisnub tetrahedral antiprism | sr{2,3,4} |
2 3.3.3.3.3 |
8 3.3.3.3 |
6+24 3.3.3 |
40 | 16+96 {3} | 96 | 24 | ||||
Nonuniform | Omnisnub cubic antiprism | 2 3.3.3.3.4 |
12+48 3.3.3 |
8 3.3.3.3 |
6 3.3.3.4 |
76 | 16+192 {3} 12 {4} | 192 | 48 | ||||
Nonuniform | Runcic snub cubic hosochoron | s_{3}{2,4,3} |
2 3.6.6 |
6 3.3.3 |
8 triangular cupola |
16 | 52 | 60 | 24 |
Icosahedral prisms: H_{3} × A_{1}
This prismatic icosahedral symmetry is [5,3,2], order 240. There are two index 2 subgroups, [(5,3)^{+},2] and [5,3,2]^{+}, but the second doesn't generate a uniform polychoron.
# | Name | Picture | Vertex figure |
Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbols |
Cells by type | Element counts | Net | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cells | Faces | Edges | Vertices | ||||||||||
57 | Dodecahedral prism | {5,3}×{ } t_{0,3}{5,3,2} |
2 5.5.5 |
12 4.4.5 |
14 | 30 {4} 24 {5} |
80 | 40 | |||||
58 | Icosidodecahedral prism | r{5,3}×{ } t_{1,3}{5,3,2} |
2 3.5.3.5 |
20 3.4.4 |
12 4.4.5 |
34 | 40 {3} 60 {4} 24 {5} |
150 | 60 | ||||
59 | Icosahedral prism (same as snub tetrahedral prism) |
{3,5}×{ } t_{2,3}{5,3,2} |
2 3.3.3.3.3 |
20 3.4.4 |
22 | 40 {3} 30 {4} |
72 | 24 | |||||
60 | Truncated dodecahedral prism | t{5,3}×{ } t_{0,1,3}{5,3,2} |
2 3.10.10 |
20 3.4.4 |
12 4.4.5 |
34 | 40 {3} 90 {4} 24 {10} |
240 | 120 | ||||
61 | Rhombicosidodecahedral prism | rr{5,3}×{ } t_{0,2,3}{5,3,2} |
2 3.4.5.4 |
20 3.4.4 |
30 4.4.4 |
12 4.4.5 |
64 | 40 {3} 180 {4} 24 {5} |
300 | 120 | |||
62 | Truncated icosahedral prism | t{3,5}×{ } t_{1,2,3}{5,3,2} |
2 5.6.6 |
12 4.4.5 |
20 4.4.6 |
34 | 90 {4} 24 {5} 40 {6} |
240 | 120 | ||||
63 | Truncated icosidodecahedral prism | tr{5,3}×{ } t_{0,1,2,3}{5,3,2} |
2 4.6.10 |
30 4.4.4 |
20 4.4.6 |
12 4.4.10 |
64 | 240 {4} 40 {6} 24 {10} |
480 | 240 | |||
64 | Snub dodecahedral prism | sr{5,3}×{ } |
2 3.3.3.3.5 |
80 3.4.4 |
12 4.4.5 |
94 | 240 {4} 40 {6} 24 {5} |
360 | 120 | ||||
Nonuniform | Omnisnub dodecahedral antiprism | 2 3.3.3.3.5 |
30+120 3.3.3 |
20 3.3.3.3 |
12 3.3.3.5 |
184 | 20+240 {3} 24 {5} | 220 | 120 |
Duoprisms: [p] × [q]
The second is the infinite family of uniform duoprisms, products of two regular polygons. A duoprism's Coxeter-Dynkin diagram is . Its vertex figure is an disphenoid tetrahedron, .
This family overlaps with the first: when one of the two "factor" polygons is a square, the product is equivalent to a hyperprism whose base is a three-dimensional prism. The symmetry number of a duoprism whose factors are a p-gon and a q-gon (a "p,q-duoprism") is 4pq if p≠q; if the factors are both p-gons, the symmetry number is 8p^{2}. The tesseract can also be considered a 4,4-duoprism.
The elements of a p,q-duoprism (p ≥ 3, q ≥ 3) are:
- Cells: p q-gonal prisms, q p-gonal prisms
- Faces: pq squares, p q-gons, q p-gons
- Edges: 2pq
- Vertices: pq
There is no uniform analogue in four dimensions to the infinite family of three-dimensional antiprisms.
Infinite set of p-q duoprism - - p q-gonal prisms, q p-gonal prisms:
Name | Coxeter graph | Cells | Images | Net |
---|---|---|---|---|
3-3 duoprism | 3+3 triangular prisms | |||
3-4 duoprism | 3 cubes 4 triangular prisms | |||
4-4 duoprism (same as tesseract) |
4+4 cubes | |||
3-5 duoprism | 3 pentagonal prisms 5 triangular prisms | |||
4-5 duoprism | 4 pentagonal prisms 5 cubes | |||
5-5 duoprism | 5+5 pentagonal prisms | |||
3-6 duoprism | 3 hexagonal prisms 6 triangular prisms | |||
4-6 duoprism | 4 hexagonal prisms 6 cubes | |||
5-6 duoprism | 5 hexagonal prisms 6 pentagonal prisms | |||
6-6 duoprism | 6+6 hexagonal prisms |
3-3 |
3-4 |
3-5 |
3-6 |
3-7 |
3-8 |
4-3 |
4-4 |
4-5 |
4-6 |
4-7 |
4-8 |
5-3 |
5-4 |
5-5 |
5-6 |
5-7 |
5-8 |
6-3 |
6-4 |
6-5 |
6-6 |
6-7 |
6-8 |
7-3 |
7-4 |
7-5 |
7-6 |
7-7 |
7-8 |
8-3 |
8-4 |
8-5 |
8-6 |
8-7 |
8-8 |
Polygonal prismatic prisms: [p] × [ ] × [ ]
The infinite set of uniform prismatic prisms overlaps with the 4-p duoprisms: (p≥3) - - p cubes and 4 p-gonal prisms - (All are the same as 4-p duoprism) The second polytope in the series is a lower symmetry of the regular tesseract, {4}×{4}.
Name | {3}×{4} | {4}×{4} | {5}×{4} | {6}×{4} | {7}×{4} | {8}×{4} | {p}×{4} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Coxeter diagrams |
|||||||
Image | |||||||
Cells | 3 {4}×{} 4 {3}×{} |
4 {4}×{} 4 {4}×{} |
5 {4}×{} 4 {5}×{} |
6 {4}×{} 4 {6}×{} |
7 {4}×{} 4 {7}×{} |
8 {4}×{} 4 {8}×{} |
p {4}×{} 4 {p}×{} |
Net |
Polygonal antiprismatic prisms: [p] × [ ] × [ ]
The infinite sets of uniform antiprismatic prisms are constructed from two parallel uniform antiprisms): (p≥2) - - 2 p-gonal antiprisms, connected by 2 p-gonal prisms and 2p triangular prisms.
Name | s{2,2}×{} | s{2,3}×{} | s{2,4}×{} | s{2,5}×{} | s{2,6}×{} | s{2,7}×{} | s{2,8}×{} | s{2,p}×{} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Coxeter diagram |
||||||||
Image | ||||||||
Vertex figure |
||||||||
Cells | 2 s{2,2} (2) {2}×{}={4} 4 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,3} 2 {3}×{} 6 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,4} 2 {4}×{} 8 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,5} 2 {5}×{} 10 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,6} 2 {6}×{} 12 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,7} 2 {7}×{} 14 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,8} 2 {8}×{} 16 {3}×{} |
2 s{2,p} 2 {p}×{} 2p {3}×{} |
Net |
A p-gonal antiprismatic prism has 4p triangle, 4p square and 4 p-gon faces. It has 10p edges, and 4p vertices.
Nonuniform alternations
Coxeter noted only two uniform solutions for rank 4 Coxeter groups with all rings alternated. The first is , s{2^{1,1,1}} which represented an index 24 subgroup (symmetry [2,2,2]^{+}, order 8) form of the demitesseract, , h{4,3,3} (symmetry [1^{+},4,3,3] = [3^{1,1,1}], order 192). The second is , s{3^{1,1,1}}, which is an index 6 subgroup (symmetry [3^{1,1,1}]^{+}, order 96) form of the snub 24-cell, , s{3,4,3}, (symmetry [3^{+},4,3], order 576).
Other alternations, such as , as an alternation from the omnitruncated tesseract , can not be made uniform as solving for equal edge lengths are in general overdetermined (there are six equations but only four variables). Such nonuniform alternated figures can be constructed as vertex-transitive 4-polytopes by the removal of one of two chiral half set of the vertices of the full ringed figure, but will have unequal edge lengths. Just like uniform alternations, they will have half of the symmetry of uniform figure, like [4,3,3]^{+}, order 192, is the symmetry of the alternated omnitruncated tesseract.^{[16]}
Geometric derivations for 46 nonprismatic Wythoffian uniform polychora
The 46 Wythoffian 4-polytopes include the six convex regular 4-polytopes. The other forty can be derived from the regular polychora by geometric operations which preserve most or all of their symmetries, and therefore may be classified by the symmetry groups that they have in common.
Summary chart of truncation operations |
Example locations of kaleidoscopic generator point on fundamental domain. |
The geometric operations that derive the 40 uniform 4-polytopes from the regular 4-polytopes are truncating operations. A 4-polytope may be truncated at the vertices, edges or faces, leading to addition of cells corresponding to those elements, as shown in the columns of the tables below.
The Coxeter-Dynkin diagram shows the four mirrors of the Wythoffian kaleidoscope as nodes, and the edges between the nodes are labeled by an integer showing the angle between the mirrors (π/n radians or 180/n degrees). Circled nodes show which mirrors are active for each form; a mirror is active with respect to a vertex that does not lie on it.
Operation | Schläfli symbol | Symmetry | Coxeter diagram | Description |
---|---|---|---|---|
Parent | t_{0}{p,q,r} | [p,q,r] | Original regular form {p,q,r} | |
Rectification | t_{1}{p,q,r} | Truncation operation applied until the original edges are degenerated into points. | ||
Birectification (Rectified dual) |
t_{2}{p,q,r} | Face are fully truncated to points. Same as rectified dual. | ||
Trirectification (dual) |
t_{3}{p,q,r} | Cells are truncated to points. Regular dual {r,q,p} | ||
Truncation | t_{0,1}{p,q,r} | Each vertex is cut off so that the middle of each original edge remains. Where the vertex was, there appears a new cell, the parent's vertex figure. Each original cell is likewise truncated. | ||
Bitruncation | t_{1,2}{p,q,r} | A truncation between a rectified form and the dual rectified form. | ||
Tritruncation | t_{2,3}{p,q,r} | Truncated dual {r,q,p}. | ||
Cantellation | t_{0,2}{p,q,r} | A truncation applied to edges and vertices and defines a progression between the regular and dual rectified form. | ||
Bicantellation | t_{1,3}{p,q,r} | Cantellated dual {r,q,p}. | ||
Runcination (or expansion) |
t_{0,3}{p,q,r} | A truncation applied to the cells, faces and edges; defines a progression between a regular form and the dual. | ||
Cantitruncation | t_{0,1,2}{p,q,r} | Both the cantellation and truncation operations applied together. | ||
Bicantitruncation | t_{1,2,3}{p,q,r} | Cantitruncated dual {r,q,p}. | ||
Runcitruncation | t_{0,1,3}{p,q,r} | Both the runcination and truncation operations applied together. | ||
Runcicantellation | t_{0,1,3}{p,q,r} | Runcitruncated dual {r,q,p}. | ||
Omnitruncation (runcicantitruncation) |
t_{0,1,2,3}{p,q,r} | Application of all three operators. | ||
Half | h{2p,3,q} | [1^{+},2p,3,q] =[(3,p,3),q] |
Alternation of , same as | |
Cantic | h_{2}{2p,3,q} | Same as | ||
Runcic | h_{3}{2p,3,q} | Same as | ||
Runcicantic | h_{2,3}{2p,3,q} | Same as | ||
Quarter | q{2p,3,2q} | [1^{+},2p,3,2r,1^{+}] | Same as | |
Snub | s{p,2q,r} | [p^{+},2q,r] | Alternated truncation | |
Cantic snub | s_{2}{p,2q,r} | Cantellated alternated truncation | ||
Runcic snub | s_{3}{p,2q,r} | Runcinated alternated truncation | ||
Runcicantic snub | s_{2,3}{p,2q,r} | Runcicantellated alternated truncation | ||
Snub rectified | sr{p,q,2r} | [(p,q)^{+},2r] | Alternated truncated rectification | |
ht_{0,3}{2p,q,2r} | [(2p,q,2r,2^{+})] | Alternated runcination | ||
Bisnub | 2s{2p,q,2r} | [2p,q^{+},2r] | Alternated bitruncation | |
Omnisnub | ht_{0,1,2,3}{p,q,r} | [p,q,r]^{+} | Alternated omnitruncation |
See also convex uniform honeycombs, some of which illustrate these operations as applied to the regular cubic honeycomb.
If two polytopes are duals of each other (such as the tesseract and 16-cell, or the 120-cell and 600-cell), then bitruncating, runcinating or omnitruncating either produces the same figure as the same operation to the other. Thus where only the participle appears in the table it should be understood to apply to either parent.
Summary of constructions by extended symmetry
The 46 uniform polychora constructed from the A_{4}, B_{4}, F_{4}, H_{4} symmetry are given in this table by their full extended symmetry and Coxeter diagrams. Alternations are grouped by their chiral symmetry. All alternations are given, although the snub 24-cell, with its 3 family of constructions is the only one that is uniform. Counts in parenthesis are either repeats or nonuniform. The Coxeter diagrams are given with subscript indices 1 through 46. The 3-3 and 4-4 duoprismatic family is included, the second for its relation to the B_{4} family.
Coxeter group | Extended symmetry |
Polychora | Chiral extended symmetry |
Alternation honeycombs | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
[3,3,3] | [3,3,3] (order 120) | 6 | _{2} | _{3} _{4} | _{7} | _{8} |
|||
[2^{+}[3,3,3]] (order 240) | 3 | _{6} | _{9} | [2^{+}[3,3,3]]^{+} (order 120) | (1) | _{-} | |
[3,3^{1,1}] | [3,3^{1,1}] (order 192) | 0 | (none) | |||
[1[3,3^{1,1}]]=[4,3,3] = (order 384) | (4) | _{17} | _{11} | _{16} | ||||
[3[3^{1,1,1}]]=[3,4,3] = (order 1152) | (3) | _{23} | _{24} | [3[3,3^{1,1}]]^{+} =[3,4,3]^{+} (order 576) | (1) | _{31} (= ) _{-} | |
[4,3,3] |
[3[1^{+},4,3,3]]=[3,4,3] = (order 1152) | (3) | _{22} | _{23} | _{24} | |||
[4,3,3] (order 384) | 12 | _{10} | _{11} | _{12} | _{13} | _{14} _{15} | _{16} | _{17} | _{18} | _{19} _{20} | _{21} |
[1^{+},4,3,3]^{+} (order 96) | (2) | _{12} (= ) _{31} _{-} | |
[4,3,3]^{+} (order 192) | (1) | _{-} | ||||
[3,4,3] | [3,4,3] (order 1152) | 6 | _{23} | _{24} _{25} | _{28} | _{29} |
[2^{+}[3^{+},4,3^{+}]] (order 576) | 1 | _{31} |
[2^{+}[3,4,3]] (order 2304) | 3 | _{27} | _{30} | [2^{+}[3,4,3]]^{+} (order 1152) | (1) | _{-} | |
[5,3,3] | [5,3,3] (order 14400) | 15 | _{33} | _{34} | _{35} | _{36} _{37} | _{38} | _{39} | _{40} | _{41} _{42} | _{43} | _{44} | _{45} | _{46} |
[5,3,3]^{+} (order 7200) | (1) | _{-} |
[3,2,3] | [3,2,3] (order 36) | 0 | (none) | [3,2,3]^{+} (order 18) | 0 | (none) |
[2^{+}[3,2,3]] (order 72) | 0 | [2^{+}[3,2,3]]^{+} (order 36) | 0 | (none) | ||
[[3],2,3]=[6,2,3] = (order 72) | 1 | [1[3,2,3]]=[[3],2,3]^{+}=[6,2,3]^{+} (order 36) | (1) | |||
[(2^{+},4)[3,2,3]]=[2^{+}[6,2,6]] = (order 288) | 1 | [(2^{+},4)[3,2,3]]^{+}=[2^{+}[6,2,6]]^{+} (order 144) | (1) | |||
[4,2,4] | [4,2,4] (order 64) | 0 | (none) | [4,2,4]^{+} (order 32) | 0 | (none) |
[2^{+}[4,2,4]] (order 128) | 0 | (none) | [2^{+}[(4,2^{+},4,2^{+})]] (order 64) | 0 | (none) | |
[(3,3)[4,2*,4]]=[4,3,3] = (order 384) | (1) | _{10} | [(3,3)[4,2*,4]]^{+}=[4,3,3]^{+} (order 192) | (1) | _{12} | |
[[4],2,4]=[8,2,4] = (order 128) | (1) | [1[4,2,4]]=[[4],2,4]^{+}=[8,2,4]^{+} (order 64) | (1) | |||
[(2^{+},4)[4,2,4]]=[2^{+}[8,2,8]] = (order 512) | (1) | [(2^{+},4)[4,2,4]]^{+}=[2^{+}[8,2,8]]^{+} (order 256) | (1) |
Symmetries in four dimensions
There are 5 fundamental mirror symmetry point group families in 4-dimensions: A_{4}: , BC_{4}: , D_{4}: , F_{4}: , H_{4}: , and I_{2}(p)×I_{2}(q) as . Each group defined by a Goursat tetrahedron fundamental domain bounded by mirror planes.^{[6]}
See also
- Regular skew polyhedron#Finite regular skew polyhedra of 4-space
- Convex uniform honeycomb - related infinite 4-polytopes in Euclidean 3-space.
- Convex uniform honeycombs in hyperbolic space - related infinite 4-polytopes in Hyperbolic 3-space.
- Paracompact uniform honeycombs
Notes
- ↑ T. Gosset: On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions, Messenger of Mathematics, Macmillan, 1900
- ↑ http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/science/2007/i.polo.blanco/c5.pdf
- ↑ Elte (1912)
- ↑ https://web.archive.org/web/19981206035238/http://members.aol.com/Polycell/uniform.html December 6, 1998 oldest archive
- ↑ The Universal Book of Mathematics: From Abracadabra to Zeno's Paradoxes By David Darling, (2004) ASIN: B00SB4TU58
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Johnson (2015), Chapter 11, section 11.5 Spherical Coxeter groups, 11.5.5 full polychoric groups
- ↑ Uniform Polytopes in Four Dimensions, George Olshevsky.
- ↑ 2004 Dissertation (German): VierdimensionaleArhimedishe Polytope (German)
- ↑ Conway (2008)
- ↑ Convex and Abstract Polytopes workshop (2005), N.Johnson — "Uniform Polychora" abstract
- ↑ Coxeter, Regular polytopes, 7.7 Schlaefli's criterion eq 7.78, p.135
- ↑ http://www.bendwavy.org/klitzing/incmats/s3s3s3s.htm
- ↑ http://www.bendwavy.org/klitzing/incmats/s3s3s4s.htm
- ↑ http://www.bendwavy.org/klitzing/incmats/s3s4s3s.htm
- ↑ http://www.bendwavy.org/klitzing/incmats/s3s3s5s.htm
- ↑ H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) p. 582-588 2.7 The four-dimensional analogues of the snub cube
References
- A. Boole Stott: Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings, Verhandelingen of the Koninklijke academy van Wetenschappen width unit Amsterdam, Eerste Sectie 11,1, Amsterdam, 1910
- Elte, E. L. (1912), The Semiregular Polytopes of the Hyperspaces, Groningen: University of Groningen, ISBN 1-4181-7968-X
- H.S.M. Coxeter:
- H.S.M. Coxeter, M.S. Longuet-Higgins und J.C.P. Miller: Uniform Polyhedra, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Londen, 1954
- Schoute, Pieter Hendrik (1911), "Analytic treatment of the polytopes regularly derived from the regular polytopes", Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 11 (3): 87 pp. Googlebook, 370-381
- H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973
- Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter, editied by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6
- (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10]
- (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591]
- (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]
- H.S.M. Coxeter and W. O. J. Moser. Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups 4th ed, Springer-Verlag. New York. 1980 p92, p122.
- J.H. Conway and M.J.T. Guy: Four-Dimensional Archimedean Polytopes, Proceedings of the Colloquium on Convexity at Copenhagen, page 38 und 39, 1965
- N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1966
- N.W. Johnson: Geometries and Transformations, (2015) Chapter 11: Finite symmetry groups
- B. Grünbaum Convex polytopes, New York ; London : Springer, c2003. ISBN 0-387-00424-6.
Second edition prepared by Volker Kaibel, Victor Klee, and Günter M. Ziegler. - John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strauss, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 26)
- Richard Klitzing, Snubs, alternated facetings, and Stott-Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams, Symmetry: Culture and Science, Vol. 21, No.4, 329-344, (2010)
External links
- Convex uniform 4-polytopes
- Uniform, convex polytopes in four dimensions:, Marco Möller (German)
- 2004 Dissertation Four-dimensional Archimedean polytopes (German)
- Uniform Polytopes in Four Dimensions, George Olshevsky.
- Convex uniform polychora based on the pentachoron, George Olshevsky.
- Convex uniform polychora based on the tesseract/16-cell, George Olshevsky.
- Convex uniform polychora based on the 24-cell, George Olshevsky.
- Convex uniform polychora based on the 120-cell/600-cell, George Olshevsky.
- Anomalous convex uniform polychoron: (grand antiprism), George Olshevsky.
- Convex uniform prismatic polychora, George Olshevsky.
- Uniform polychora derived from glomeric tetrahedron B4, George Olshevsky.
- Regular and semi-regular convex polytopes a short historical overview
- Java3D Applets with sources
- Uniform, convex polytopes in four dimensions:, Marco Möller (German)
- Nonconvex uniform 4-polytopes
- Uniform polychora by Jonathan Bowers
- Stella4D Stella (software) produces interactive views of known uniform polychora including the 64 convex forms and the infinite prismatic families.
- Klitzing, Richard. "4D uniform polytopes".
- 4D-Polytopes and Their Dual Polytopes of the Coxeter Group W(A4) Represented by Quaternions International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics,Vol. 9, No. 4 (2012) Mehmet Koca, Nazife Ozdes Koca, Mudhahir Al-Ajmi (2012)