|Highest governing body||World Flying Disc Federation|
|Nicknames||ultimate, ultimate frisbee, flatball, or frisbee|
grass: 7/team, indoor: 5/team, beach: 5/team|
(sometimes fewer or more)
|Mixed gender||In some competitions and most leagues|
|Equipment||flying disc (disc, frisbee)|
|Olympic||Yes, is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), also is included in the World Games|
Ultimate, originally known as ultimate frisbee, is a non-contact team sport originally played by players with a flying disc (frisbee). The term Frisbee, often used to generically describe all flying discs, is a registered trademark of the Wham-O toy company, and thus the sport is not referred to as Ultimate Frisbee. Points are scored by passing the disc to a teammate in the opposing end zone. Other basic rules are that players must not take steps while holding the disc, and interceptions, incomplete passes, and passes out of bounds are turnovers. Rain, wind, or occasionally other adversities can make for a testing match with rapid turnovers, heightening the pressure of play.
From its beginnings in the American counterculture of the late 1960s, ultimate has resisted empowering any referee with rule enforcement, instead relying on the sportsmanship of players and invoking the "spirit of the game" to maintain fair play. Players call their own fouls, and dispute a foul only when they genuinely believe it did not occur. Playing without referees is the norm for league play, but has been supplanted in club competition by the use of "observers"/"advisers" to help in disputes, and the professional leagues employ empowered referees.
In 2012 there were 5.1 million ultimate players in the United States. Ultimate is played across the world in pickup games and by recreational, school, club, professional, and national teams at various age levels and with open, women's, and mixed divisions. The most recent World Ultimate Club Championship was in Lecco, Italy in July 2014 where US teams won Gold in all three divisions. The 2016 WFDF World Ultimate & Guts Championships was held in London in 2016, where US teams finished first in every division.
Invention and early history
Team flying disc games using pie tins and cake pan lids were part of Amherst College student culture for decades before plastic discs were available. A similar two-hand touch football-based game was played at Kenyon College in Ohio starting in 1942.
From 1965 or 1966 Jared Kass and fellow Amherst students Bob Fein, Richard Jacobson, Robert Marblestone, Steve Ward, Fred Hoxie, Gordon Murray, and others evolved a team frisbee game based on concepts from American football, basketball, and soccer. This game had some of the basics of modern ultimate including scoring by passing over a goal line, advancing the disc by passing, no travelling with the disc, and turnovers on interception or incomplete pass. Jared, an instructor and dorm advisor, taught this game to high school student Joel Silver during the summer of 1967 or 1968 at Mount Hermon Prep school summer camp.
Joel Silver, along with fellow students Jonny Hines, Buzzy Hellring, and others, developed ultimate beginning in 1968 at Columbia High School, Maplewood, New Jersey, USA (CHS). The first sanctioned game was played at CHS in 1968 between the student council and the student newspaper staff. Beginning the following year evening games were played in the glow of mercury-vapor lights on the school's student-designated parking lot. Initially players of ultimate frisbee (as it was known at the time) used a "Master" disc marketed by Wham-O, based on Fred Morrison's inspired "Pluto Platter" design. Hellring, Silver, and Hines developed the first and second edition of "Rules of Ultimate Frisbee". In 1970 CHS defeated Millburn High 43-10 in the first interscholastic ultimate game. CHS, Millburn, and three other New Jersey high schools made up the first conference of Ultimate teams beginning in 1971.
Alumni of that first league took the game to their colleges and universities. Rutgers defeated Princeton 29-27 in 1972 in the first intercollegiate game. This game was played exactly 103 years after the first intercollegiate American football game by the same teams at precisely the same site, which had been paved as a parking lot in the interim. Rutgers won both games by an identical margin.
Rutgers also won the first ultimate frisbee tournament in 1975, hosted by Yale, with 8 college teams participating. That summer ultimate was introduced at the Second World Frisbee Championships at the Rose Bowl. This event introduced ultimate on the west coast of the USA.
In 1975, ultimate was introduced at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto as a showcase event. Ultimate League play in Canada began in Toronto in 1979. The Toronto Ultimate Club is one of ultimate's oldest leagues.
In January 1977 Wham-O introduced the World Class "80 Mold" 165 gram frisbee. This disc quickly replaced the relatively light and flimsy Master frisbee with much improved stability and consistency of throws even in windy conditions. Throws like the flick and hammer were possible with greater control and accuracy with this sturdier disc. The 80 Mold was used in ultimate tournaments even after it was discontinued in 1983.
Discraft, founded in the late 1970s by Jim Kenner in London, Ontario, later moved the company from Canada to its present location in Wixom, Michigan. Discraft introduced the Ultrastar 175 gram disc in 1981, with an updated mold in 1983. This disc was adopted as the standard for ultimate during the '80s, with Wham-O holdouts frustrated by the discontinuation of the 80 mold and plastic quality problems with discs made on the replacement 80e mold. Wham-O soon introduced a contending 175 gram disc, the U-Max, that also suffered from quality problems and was never widely popular for ultimate. In 1991 the Ultrastar was specified as the official disc for UPA tournament play and remains in wide use.
The popularity of the sport spread quickly, taking hold as a free-spirited alternative to traditional organized sports. In recent years college ultimate has attracted a greater number of traditional athletes, raising the level of competition and athleticism and providing a challenge to its laid back, free-spirited roots.
In late December 1979, the first national player-run ultimate organization was founded in the United States as the Ultimate Players Association (UPA). Tom Kennedy was elected its first director. Before the UPA, events had been sponsored by the International Frisbee Association (IFA), a promotional arm of Wham-O.
In 2010, the UPA rebranded itself as USA Ultimate.
The first European Championship tournament for national teams was held in 1980 in Paris. Finland won, with England and Sweden finishing second and third. In 1981 the European Flying Disc Federation (EFDF) was formed. In 1984 the World Flying Disc Federation was formed by the EFDF to be the international governing body for disc sports. The first World Championships tournament was held in 1983 in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The European Ultimate Federation is the governing body for the sport of Ultimate in Europe. Funded in 2009, it is part of the European Flying Disc Federation (EFDF) and of the World Flying Disc Federation.
In 2006, ultimate became a BUCS accredited sport at Australian and UK universities for both indoor and outdoor open division events. In 2012, Robert Knight captained Australia's National Frisbee team to the World Championship Final, coining a tactic now popularly referred to as the "reverse-double-double cheese stack", and inspiring a huge grass roots following.
A point is scored when one team catches the disc in the opposing team's end zone.
A player cannot run with the disc – it may be moved only by passing. The player holding the disc must maintain a pivot point which does not "travel" throughout their possession. A team can advance the disc to the end zone they are attacking through any number of passes, including (but not limited to) one long throw to the end zone (colloquially called "huck"), or multiple shorter passes.
If a pass is incomplete (not caught), caught out of bounds, caught by a defending player, or knocked out of the air by the defense, it is a "turnover" and the opposing team immediately gains possession, playing to score in the opposite direction.
Ultimate is non-contact, meaning non-incidental physical contact is disallowed. Defenders must make clean interceptions on throws in order to get possession of the disc, and cannot take the disc from an offensive player who has secured a catch. Contact which is not incidental is a foul, with various consequences depending on the situation and the league.
Defending the person who has the disc is a central part of the defensive strategy, (colloquially "marking"). The defensive "marker" counts to 10 (seconds) and if it has not been thrown when the defending player reaches 10 it is a turnover and the disk is given to the other team. There can only be one player defending in a 3-meter radius around the person who has the disk, unless that player is defending someone not with the disk. The defender gives the thrower a disc space between them and must not wrap their hands around the thrower, otherwise the person with the disk can call a foul (wrapping).
The game is usually self-refereed, relying on the honesty of the players to call their own infractions, and to try to play within the rules of the game at all time. It is assumed no player will intentionally violate the rules, and will be honest when discussing calls with opponents – this is called Spirit of the Game. After a call is made, the players should decide on an outcome, based on what they think happened and how the rules apply to that situation. If a player has been fouled on a catch, they will often gain possession of the disc. If the players agree to disagree on a catching foul, the disc can be given back to the thrower, with play restarting as if the throw didn't occur.
Each point begins with the two teams starting in opposite end zones. The team who scored the previous point are now on defence. The teams indicate their readiness by raising a hand, and the team on defence will throw the disc to the other team. This throw is called a "pull". When the pull is released, all players are free to leave their end zones and occupy any area on the field. Both teams should not leave the endzone before the pull is released. Thus, the defending team must run most of the field length at speed to defend immediately. And a good pull is designed to hang in the air as long as possible to give the defending team time to make the run.
A regulation outdoor game is played 7 vs 7, with substitutions allowed between points and for injuries. Games are typically played to a points limit of 13/15/17 or a time limit of 75/90/100 minutes. There is usually a half time break and an allowance of timeouts per team.
A WFDF regulation field is 100 meters by 37 meters, including end zones each 18 meters deep. A USA Ultimate regulation field is 120 yards (110 m) by 40 yards (37m), with end zones 25 yards (23m) deep. MLU games are played on a football field, 120 yards long, 53.3 yards wide, with 20 yard end zones.
USA Ultimate vs. WFDF rules
There are two primary sets of rules for competitive ultimate. In most cases, their applications result in similar outcomes, but there are differences.
- USA Ultimate rules. Applies for USA and Canada. Until 2013, the rules used in Japan were based on a translation of these.
- WFDF rules. Used anywhere else including at the World Championships.
The differences can be found on the WFDF website.
AUDL and MLU rule changes
- Slightly larger field sizes
- Playing in four quarters (no games to X points or soft-cap / hard-cap rules).
- More power to referees
- Tougher foul penalties
- Allowing double team but not triple team
- stall count is 7 seconds instead of 10
Catching is done with one hand or both hands on the rim or hands simultaneously on the top and bottom, which is sometimes referred to as a clap-catch. Care must always be taken in hand placement when catching with one hand on the disc rim, making sure to catch on the proper side of the disc, according to which way the disc is spinning. One side will tend to spin out of the player's hand, while the other side will spin into their hand, making for a more secure catch. Many players avoid this problem by always catching with both hands when possible. The most popular throws used in a game of ultimate are backhand, sidearm/forehand/flick, hammer and scoober. Being a deep threat with multiple throwing techniques and the ability to pass the disc before the defense has had a chance to reset is always optimal. Some players use a throw and catch freestyle practice to help improve their ultimate handling skills.
Strategy and tactics
Teams can employ many different offensive strategies, each with distinct goals. Most basic strategies are an attempt to create open space (e.g. lanes) on the field in which the thrower and receiver can complete a pass. Organized teams assign positions to the players based on their specific strengths. Designated throwers are called handlers and designated receivers are called cutters. The amount of autonomy or overlap between these positions depends on the make-up of the team.
Many advanced teams develop variations on the basic offenses to take advantage of the strengths of specific players. Frequently, these offenses are meant to isolate a few key players in one-on-one situations, allowing them more freedom of movement and the ability to make most of the plays, while the others play a supporting role.
One of the most common offensive strategies is the vertical stack. In this strategy, a number of offensive players line up between the disc and the end zone they are attacking. From this position, players in the stack make cuts (sudden sprints) into the space available, attempting to get open and receive the disc. The stack generally lines up in the middle of the field, thereby opening up two lanes along the sidelines for cuts, although a captain may occasionally call for the stack to line up closer to one sideline, leaving open just one larger cutting lane on the other side. Variations of the vertical stack include the Side Stack, where the stack is moved to a sideline and one player is isolated in the open space, and the Split Stack, where players are split between two stacks, one on either sideline. The Side Stack is most helpful in an end zone play where your players line up on one side of the end zone and the handler calls an “ISO” (isolation) using one of the player’s names. This then signals for the rest of the players on your team to clear away from that one person in order for them to receive a pass. In vertical stack offenses, one player usually plays the role of 'dump', offering a reset option which sets up behind the player with the disc.
Another popular offensive strategy is the horizontal stack. In the most popular form of this offense, three "handlers" line up across the width of the field with four "cutters" downfield, spaced evenly across the field. This formation encourages cutters to attack any of the space either towards or away from the disc, granting each cutter access to the full width of the field and thereby allowing a degree more creativity than is possible with a vertical stack. If cutters cannot get open, the handlers swing the disc side to side to reset the stall count and in an attempt to get the defense out of position. Usually players will cut towards the disc at an angle and away from the disc straight, creating a 'diamond' or 'peppermill' pattern.
Hexagon / Mexican Offense
A more recent strategy being adopted by teams around the world is Hexagon Offence. Players spread out in equilateral triangles creating a Hexagon shape with one player (usually not the thrower) in the middle. They create space for each other dynamically, aiming to keep the disc moving by taking the open pass in any direction. This maximises options by changing the angles of attack rapidly, hoping to create and exploit holes in the defence. Whereas vertical and horizontal aim to open up space for individual yard-gaining throws, Hex aims to generate and maintain flow to lead to scoring opportunities. Hex offence can be played against Zonal defence as well as man-to-man, unlike stack offences.
Feature / German
A variation on the horizontal stack offense is called a feature, or German. In this offensive strategy three of the cutters line up deeper than usual (this can vary from 5 yards farther downfield to at the endzone) while the remaining cutter lines up closer to the handlers. This closest cutter is known as the "feature," or "German." The idea behind this strategy is that it opens up space for the feature to cut, and at the same time it allows handlers to focus all of their attention on only one cutter. This maximizes the ability for give-and-go strategies between the feature and the handlers. It is also an excellent strategy if one cutter is superior to other cutters, or if he is guarded by someone slower than him. While the main focus is on the handlers and the feature, the remaining three cutters can be used if the feature cannot get open, if there is an open deep look, or for a continuation throw from the feature itself. Typically, however, these three remaining cutters do all they can to get out of the feature's way.
One of the most basic defensive principles is the "force". The defender marking the thrower essentially tries to force them to throw in a particular direction (to the "force side" or "open side"), whilst making it difficult for them to throw in the opposite direction (the "break side"). Downfield defenders make it hard for the receiving players to get free on the open/force side, knowing throws to the break side are less likely to be accurate. The space is divided in this way because it is very hard for the player marking the disc to stop every throw, and very hard for the downfield defenders to cover every space.
The force can be decided by the defence before the point or during play. The most common force is a one-way force, either towards the "home" side (where the team has their bags/kit), or "away". Other forces are "sideline" (force towards the closest sideline), "middle" (force towards the center of the field), "straight up" (the force stands directly in front of the thrower – useful against long throwers), or "sidearm/backhand" if one wishes their opponents to throw a particular throw.
The simplest defensive strategy is the man-to-man defense (also known as "one-to-one"), where each defender guards a specific offensive player, called their "mark". This defense creates one-to-one matchups all over the field – if each defender shuts out their mark, the team will likely earn a turn over. The defensive players will usually choose their mark at the beginning of the point before the pull. Often players will mark the same person throughout the game, giving them an opportunity to pick up on their opponent's strengths and weaknesses as they play.
With a zonal defensive strategy, the defenders cover an area rather than a specific person. The area they cover varies depending on the particular zone they are playing, and the position of the disc. Zone defense is frequently used in poor weather conditions, as it can pressure the offense into completing more passes, or the thrower into making bigger or harder throws. Zone defence is also effective at neutralising the deep throw threat from the offense. A zone defense usually has two components – (1) a number of players who stay close to the disc and attempt to contain the offenses' ability to pass and move forward (a "cup" or "wall"), and (2) a number of players spaced out further from the disc, ready to bid on overhead or longer throws.
The cup involves three players, arranged in a semi-circular cup-shaped formation, one in the middle and back, the other two on the sides and forward. One of the side players marks the handler with a force, while the other two guard the open side. Therefore, the handler will normally have to throw into the cup, allowing the defenders to more easily make blocks. With a cup, usually the center cup blocks the up-field lane to cutters, while the side cup blocks the cross-field swing pass to other handlers. The center cup usually also has the responsibility to call out which of the two sides should mark the thrower, usually the defender closest to the sideline of the field. The idea of the cup is to force the offense into making many short passes behind and around the cup. The cup (except the marker) must also remember to stay 3 meters or more away from the offensive player with the disc. The only time a player in the cups can come within 3 meters of the player with the disc is when another offensive player comes within 3 meters of the person with the disc, also known as "crashing the cup".
The "wall" sometimes referred to as the "1-3-3" involves four players in the close defense. One player is the marker, also called the "rabbit", "chaser" or "puke" because they often have to run quickly between multiple handlers spread out across the field. The other three defenders form a horizontal "wall" or line across the field in front of the handler to stop throws to short in-cuts and prevent forward progress. The players in the second group of a zone defense, called "mids" and "deeps", position themselves further out to stop throws that escape the cup and fly upfield. A variation of the 1-3-3 is to have two markers: The "rabbit" marks in the middle third and strike side third of the field. The goal is for the "rabbit" to trap the thrower and collapse a cup around him. If the rabbit is broken for large horizontal yardage, or if the disc reaches the break side third of the field, the break side defender of the front wall marks the throw. In this variation the force is directed one way. This variation plays to the strength of a superior marking "rabbit".
A junk defense is a defense using elements of both zone and man defenses; the most well-known is the "clam" or "chrome wall". In clam defenses, defenders cover cutting lanes rather than zones of the field or individual players. The clam can be used by several players on a team while the rest are running a man defense. Typically, a few defenders play man on the throwers while the cutter defenders play as "flats", taking away in cuts by guarding their respective areas, or as the "deep" or "monster", taking away any deep throws.
This defensive strategy is often referred to as "bait and switch". In this case, when the two players the defenders are covering are standing close to each other in the stack, one defender will move over to shade them deep, and the other will move slightly more towards the thrower. When one of the receivers makes a deep cut, the first defender picks them up, and if one makes an in-cut, the second defender covers them. The defenders communicate and switch their marks if their respective charges change their cuts from in to deep, or vice versa. The clam can also be used by the entire team, with different defenders covering in cuts, deep cuts, break side cuts, and dump cuts.
The term "junk defense" is also often used to refer to zone defenses in general (or to zone defense applied by the defending team momentarily, before switching to a man defense), especially by members of the attacking team before they have determined which exact type of zone defense they are facing.
Hexagon / Flexagon defense
A separate type of defense is Flexagon, which incorporates elements of both man-to-man and zonal defense. All defenders are encouraged to communicate, to sandwich their opponents and switch marks wherever appropriate, and to ensure no opposing player is left unmarked.
Spirit of the Game
All youth and most club ultimate games are self-officiated through the “Spirit of the Game," often abbreviated SOTG. Spirit of the game is an expectation that each player will be a good sport and play fair, including "following and enforcing the rules."
SOTG is contextualized and described in the official rules established by USA Ultimate (9th edition; 11th edition):
Ultimate has traditionally relied upon a spirit of sportsmanship which places the responsibility for fair play on the player. Highly competitive play is encouraged, but never at the expense of the bond of mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed upon rules of the game, or the basic joy of play. Protection of these vital elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the ultimate field. Such actions as taunting of opposing players, dangerous aggression, intentional fouling, or other ‘win-at-all-costs’ behavior are contrary to the spirit of the game and must be avoided by all players.
Many tournaments give awards for the most spirited teams and/or players, often based on ratings provided by opposing teams. The largest youth ultimate tournament in the world, Spring Reign, uses spirit scores to award a spirit prize within each pool and to determine eligibility of teams the following year. In many non-professional games, it is common for teams to meet after the game in a "spirit circle" to discuss the game, and in some cases grant individual spirit awards.
In Europe and other countries, even top-level play does not have referees. Some world championship games have had no referees, and disputes were decided by the players themselves.
"Observers" are used in some high level tournaments outside the USA, as well as in some tournaments sanctioned by USA Ultimate. Disputes are initially handled by the players, but observers step in if no agreement is reached. In some settings, officials use a stopwatch to track the stall count and the defending players are not counting the stall.
Other forms of refereeing exist in ultimate. Professional ultimate in North America uses referees, in part to increase the pace of the game.
Hat tournaments are common in the ultimate circuit. At these tournaments players join individually rather than as a team. The tournament organizers form teams by randomly taking the names of the participants from a hat.
Many hat tournaments on the US west coast have a "Hat Rule" requiring all players to wear a hat at all times during play. If a player gains possession of the disc, yet loses his hat in the process, the play is considered a turnover and possession of the disc reverts to the other team.
However, in some tournaments, the organizers do not actually use a hat, but form teams while taking into account skill, experience, sex, age, height, and fitness level of the players in the attempt to form teams of even strength. Many times the random element remains, so that organizers randomly pick players from each level for each team, combining a lottery with skill matching. Usually, the player provides this information when he or she signs up to enter the tournament. There are also many cities that run hat leagues, structured like a hat tournament, but where the group of players stay together over the course of a season.
Regulation play, sanctioned in the United States by the USA Ultimate, occurs at the college (open & women's divisions), club (open, women's, mixed (co-ed), masters and grandmasters divisions) and youth (boys & girls divisions) levels, with annual championships in all divisions. Top teams from the championship series compete in semi-annual world championships regulated by the WFDF (alternating between Club Championships and National Championships), made up of national flying disc organizations and federations from about 50 countries.
Ultimate Canada is the governing body for the sport of ultimate in Canada. Beginning in 1993, the goals of Ultimate Canada include representing the interests of the sport and all ultimate players, as well as promoting its growth and development throughout Canada. Ultimate Canada also facilitates open and continuous communication within the ultimate community and within the sports community and to organize ongoing activities for the sport including national competitions and educational programs.
Founded in 1986, incorporated in 1993, the Ottawa-Carleton Ultimate Association based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, claims to have the largest summer league in the world with 354 teams and over 5000 players as of 2004.
The Los Angeles Organization of Ultimate Teams puts on annual tournaments with thousands of players.
There have been a small number of children's leagues. The largest and first known pre-high school league was started in 1993 by Mary Lowry, Joe Bisignano, and Jeff Jorgenson in Seattle, Washington. In 2005, the DiscNW Middle School Spring League had over 450 players on 30 mixed teams. Large high school leagues are also becoming common. The largest one is the DiscNW High School Spring League. It has both mixed and single gender divisions with over 30 teams total. The largest adult league is the San Francisco Ultimate League, with 350 teams and over 4000 active members in 2005, located in San Francisco, California. The largest per capita is the Madison Ultimate Frisbee association, with an estimated 1.8% of the population of Madison, WI playing in active leagues. Dating back to 1977, the Mercer County (New Jersey) Ultimate Disc League (www.mercerultimate.org) is the world's oldest recreational league. There are even large leagues with children as young as third grade, an example being the junior division of the SULA ultimate league in Amherst, Massachusetts.
Ultimate Canada operates one main competition for university ultimate teams in Canada: Canadian University Ultimate Championships (CUUC) with six qualifying regional events, one of which is the Canadian Eastern University Ultimate Championships (CEUUC).
There are two professional level ultimate leagues that involve teams from the United States and Canada.
The American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) was founded by Josh Moore and its inaugural season began in April 2012. In 2013 the league was bought by Ultimate Xperience Ventures LLC, a company founded by Rob Lloyd who was serving as VP of Cisco but has since become the CEO of Hyperloop. In 2012 the league began with eight teams, but currently consists of 26 teams in four divisions (East, South, Midwest, and West). Since the league's inaugural season, they have added 24 new teams and had 10 teams fold. Only three of the original eight teams remain in the league (Cincinnati Revolution, Indianapolis Alleycats, and Detroit Mechanix). Each team plays a total of 14 regular season games on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday during the months of April through July. In late July there are playoffs in each division followed by a championship weekend held the first weekend in August. The AUDL uses the Discraft Ultrastar as the official game disc. The team funding comes from sources similar to those of other professional sports: sales of tickets, merchandise, concessions and sponsorship. In 2014, the league entered an agreement with ESPN to broadcast 18 games per season for a 2-year period (with a 3rd year option) on the online streaming service ESPN3. That contract was executed by Fulcrum Media Group, LLC.
Major League Ultimate (MLU) was formed in 2013 after the Philadelphia Spinners and their owner Jeff Snader left the AUDL due to differences in how the league should be structured. The MLU is centrally organized which provides consistent quality and branding among its eight teams. The league has four teams in each division split between both the East and West coasts. There is a championship game for each conference at the end of each season, with the winners playing in the MLU Championship game. The MLU broadcasts weekly games on YouTube and broadcasts East Coast games on Comcast. In 2016 there were cross-divisional match-ups during the regular season for the first time. The MLU also has a fantasy ultimate league. The MLU uses the Innova Pulsar as the official game disc.
There are also national teams participating in international tournament, both field and beach formats.
- Layout: where a player extends his body horizonaly towards the disc, ending up lying on the ground usually. This can happen offensively to catch a far or low disc, or defensively to hit the disc and force a turnover.
- Callahan: Where a defensive player catches the disc in the far end endzone while defending. This yields an immediate score for the defending team, as this endzone is their endzone to score in.
Competitions and Leagues:
- American Ultimate Disc League
- Major League Ultimate
- USA Ultimate
- World Flying Disc Federation
- List of Ultimate teams
- U.S. intercollegiate Ultimate champions
- Ultimate Canada
- Ultimate in Japan
- Beach Ultimate Lovers Association
- Deutscher Frisbeesport-Verband
Disc games and other:
- Ken Westerfield
- Ultimate glossary
- Currier Island - a fictional nation competing in national beach ultimate events
- IOC Session receives updates on implementation of Olympic Agenda 2020 - Olympic News
- "World Flying Disc Federation Receives Recognition by the International Olympic Committee". World Flying Disc Federation. 31 May 2013.
- "Ultimate Frisbee Participation [SFIA]". Sludge Output. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Leonardo, Pasquale Anthony; Zagoria, Adam (2005). Ultimate: The First Four Decades. Joe Seidler. ISBN 0976449609. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Ultimate History – General". vimeo.com. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- "An Abbreviated History of Ultimate Compiled by Michael E. Iacovella". wfdf.org. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "Major Steps in History of Ultimate". wfdf.org. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "Timeline of early history of Flying Disc Play (1871-1995)". wfdf.org. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "History of the Frisbee". wfdf.org. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "TUC History". Toronto Ultimate Club History. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- "Special Merit: The "80 Mold"". usaultimate.org. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "FPA Freestyle Disc Hall of Fame Pioneer Class Inductee Jim Kenner". Retrieved 2016-04-10.
- "Ultimate Hall of Fame". Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- "The Discraft Ultrastar (Class of 2011)". usaultimate.org. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- "When Wham-O Was King: Why The Innova V. Discraft Debate Is Old News". ultiworld.com. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Jordan Holtzman-Conston (2010). Countercultural Sports in America: The History and Meaning of Ultimate Frisbee. Waltham, Mass. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Ultimate Canada". Home Page. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "'Ultimate Frisbee' recognised by International Olympic Committee". BBC News.
- SI Wire. "Ultimate Frisbee recognized by International Olympic Committee". SI.com.
- "Ultimate". www.wfdf.org. Retrieved 2015-09-13.
- "Rules of Ultimate". Usaultimate.org. 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "Major League Ultimate 2016 Rulebook". mlultimate.com. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Freestyle the Ultimate Edge". Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Ultimate Terms and Lingo". Ultimate Frisbee HQ. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Rules of the Game". USA Ulitmate.
- Administrator. "Spirit of the game". www.wfdf.org. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
- "Ultimate Rules!". www.cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- "11th Edition Rules". www.usaultimate.org. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- "Spring Reign (2015)". DiscNW. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
- "Basic Rules". Wfdf.org. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "Ultimate Canada". Home Page. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Play Ultimate". Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- "Toronto Ultimate Club". Toronto Ultimate Home Page. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- "TUC History". Toronto Ultimate Club History. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Bock, Paula (July 24, 2005). "The Sport Of Free Spirits". The Seattle Times Sunday Magazine. Seattle, Washington: The Seattle Times company. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- USA Ultimate College Championships
- "Ultimate Interviews". Mark Earley. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- "MLU to Air on Comcast SportsNet Mid-Atlantic". Shawn Nison. 2014-04-25.
- "About Major League Ultimate". Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- http://www.usaultimate.org/news/usa-ultimate-announces-new-team-selection-procedures-for-wugc/. Missing or empty
- http://www.wfdf.org/history-stats/world-rankings. Missing or empty
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