USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164)
USNS Kingsport (T-AG 164) under way, 29 January 1963. The photo shows the 53-foot white plastic dome that protects the 30-foot stabilized parabolic antenna.
|Ordered:||as type (VC2-S-AP2) hull, MCV hull 20|
|Builder:||California Shipbuilding Corporation, Los Angeles, California|
|Laid down:||4 April 1944, as SS Kingsport Victory|
|Launched:||29 May 1944|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. George O'Brien|
|Completed:||12 July 1944|
|Acquired:||12 July 1944|
|Out of service:||31 January 1984|
|Renamed:||14 November 1961, Kingsport|
|Refit:||Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Philadelphia, PA. from 1 June 1962 to 1 December 1962|
|Struck:||31 January 1984|
|1 x battle star for World War II service|
|Fate:||Withdrawn from the reserve fleet on 21 January 1992 for scrapping in India|
|Class and type:||as T-AK-239: Greenville Victory-class cargo ship|
|Length:||455 ft 3 in (455.2 ft) LOA|
|Beam:||62 ft (19 m)|
|Draft:||28 ft 6 in (8.69 m)|
|Installed power:||8,500 shp (6,300 kW)|
|Speed:||16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph)|
|Aviation facilities:||Helicopter deck added|
USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164) was built as SS Kingsport Victory, a United States Maritime Commission VC2-S-AP3 (Victory) type cargo ship. During the closing days of World War II the ship was operated by the American Hawaiian Steamship Company under an agreement with the War Shipping Administration. After a period of layup the ship was operated as USAT Kingsport Victory by the Army under bareboat charter effective 8 July 1948. When Army transports were transferred to the Navy's Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service the ship continued as a cargo transport as USNS Kingsport Victory (T-AK-239). On 14 November 1961, after conversion into the first satellite communication ship, the ship was renamed Kingsport, preclassifird as a general auxiliary, and operated as USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164).
Assigned to duty supporting the U.S. Army Satellite Communications Agency USNS Kingsport was further modified and, in August 1963 while in Lagos harbor, transmitted the first satellite voice call between heads of state when John F. Kennedy and Nigerian Prime Minister Abubakar Balewa aboard Kingsport spoke in a two-way call. A demonstration of transmission of oceanographic data was made between a research vessel off Africa via the ship and satellite to Washington. The first air to ship satellite communication took place when Navy aircraft off Virginia established voice communication with Kingsport which was off Morocco. Further satellite communications work took place in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Kingsport then supported Project Gemini into March 1966. After conversion from satellite configuration, particularly removal of the large and very visible dome, Kingsport was engaged in acoustic work for the Navy supporting undersea surveillance programs.
Kingsport Victory, a United States Maritime Commission VC2-S-AP3 (Victory) type cargo ship, was laid down 4 April 1944 with launch on 29 May and completion on 12 July 1944 with delivery to the War Shipping Administration (WSA) on the same day at Los Angeles. Basic dimensions, not counting modifications for satellite communications, were length 436 feet 6 inches (133.0 m) (LBP), 62 feet (18.9 m) beam and 7,653 GRT.
War Shipping Administration & Army service
Kingsport Victory was immediately placed under operation by the American Hawaiian Steamship Company under WSA's general agency agreement until taken out of service and placed in the reserve fleet at Lee Hall, Virginia on 29 September 1947. On 8 April 1948 the ship was taken out of reserve and bareboat chartered to the War Department for operation as the USAT ''Kingsport Victory. During this time the ship was involved in a legal case, Johansen, v. United States, involving rights of an Army civil service employee crewmember in personal injury cases.
Navy MSTS service
Kingsport Victory was among large Army ships transferred to the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) with Kingsport Victory being transferred effective 1 March 1950. The ship carried military cargo for the next eleven years as USNS Kingsport Victory (T-AK-239). Kingsport Victory is seen in an Air Force documentary film on the construction of the Dew Line loading supplies at Norfolk, Virginia and unloading at Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Satellite communications ship Kingsport
On 24 September 1961, she was delivered to the Portland, Oregon facilities of Willamette Iron & Steel Company where she underwent conversion to become the first satellite communications ship. On 14 November 1961 she was renamed Kingsport and reclassified AG-164.
Designed for use by the United States Army Satellite Communications Agency in the defense satellite communications programs, Project ADVENT, USNS Kingsport underwent extensive alteration during conversion. A special high frequency radio station was installed for ship-to-shore communications. She received advanced tracking and telemetry equipment and anti-roll stabilization tanks. In addition, a 30-foot, gyro-stabilized, computer-oriented, triaxial, parabolic antenna was installed on her afterdeck. Housed in a 53-foot, plastic, air-pressurized radome, this antenna permitted precision tracking of a high altitude satellite at any angle above the horizon.
Kingsport sailed to Lagos, Nigeria after Syncom 2 had been successfully launched on 26 July 1963 to serve as the terminal control station during testing and evaluation of the satellite. On 23 August 1963, President John F. Kennedy in Washington, D.C., telephoned Nigerian Prime Minister Abubakar Balewa aboard the Kingsport docked in Lagos Harbor via Syncom 2, the first geosynchronous communication satellite. It was the first live two-way call between heads of state by satellite. Syncom 2 and Relay 1 linked Nigeria, Brazil and the United States with Kingsport transmitting through Syncom 2 to New Jersey and New Jersey via Relay 1 to Rio de Janeiro. During this period Gulf of Guinea oceanographic data, composed of depths temperature and salinity from a 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) station, were transmitted from the RV Geronimo to the National Oceanographic Data Center via Kingsport and Syncom 2.
Kingsport departed Lagos 23 September and during transit off Morocco on 2 October demonstrated the first satellite communications between an aircraft in flight when a Navy aircraft off the Virginia coast made voice contact with the ship via satellite. The ship reached Rota, Spain on 3 October, staying until 6 October, then sailed supporting communication tests in the Mediterranean from 7 to 25 October. Tests of voice and teletype links between the United States and ships of the 6th Fleet successful with the ship visiting Leghorn, Italy and Beirut, Lebanon during the voyage. After arriving in Rota 26 October and completing additional experiments she sailed for Norfolk 9 November and arrived 21 November.
Kingsport departed for the Pacific 17 February 1964 via Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal stopping at San Diego 13 March and reaching Pearl Harbor on 25 March 1964. For the next ten months the ship operated between Pearl Harbor and Guam supporting further communication experiments including those related to the evaluation of SYNCOM 3 after its launching 19 August 1964. Further experiments extended throughout the Western Pacific and into the Indian Ocean until July 1965.
She then provided support for NASA's Gemini manned space shots serving as on station communications ship between Okinawa and the Philippines for Gemini 5 from 21 to 29 August. She supported three more Gemini flights between 4 December and 16 March 1966 before returning to the West Coast in April. She remained at San Francisco from 18 April to 27 October in a ready reserve status. During November she steamed to the East Coast, and in early 1967 was at New York undergoing repairs and alterations.
After completion of her communications support role the USNS Kingsport became a bathymetric and acoustic survey ship supporting undersea surveillance. Among the now published reports, declassified in 2006, of the ship's work is a description of the Indian Ocean exercise code named BEARING STAKE that took place from January to April 1977.
Kingsport was placed out of service on 31 Jan 1984, transferred to the Maritime Administration for layup on 29 August 1984 then transferred back to the Military Sealift Command for scientific research on 1 March 1990. The ship was withdrawn from the reserve fleet on 21 January 1992 for scrapping in India.
- MARAD Vessel Status Card: Kingsport (AG-164).
- MARAD Vessel Status Card: Kingsport Victory.
- Colton: California Shipbuilding, Los Angeles CA.
- United States Court of Appeals Second Circuit.
- National Archives: Dew Line: Documentary synopsis.
- U.S. Fleet Forces Command: August 23.
- Uhlig, Sellmaier & Schmidhuber.
- Williamson, p. 185.
- ICO Report #6lP-64.
- Applied Research Laboratory, p. 49.
- Hanish, Rollins & Cybulski.
- Fenner & Cronin, p. 3.
- Fenner & Cronin, p. Foreword.
- Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University (2010). From the Sea to the Stars: A Chronicle of the U.S. Navy’s Space and Space-related Activities, 1944-2009 (PDF). Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Colton, T. (October 13, 2010). "California Shipbuilding, Los Angeles CA". ShipbuildingHistory. T. Colton. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Fenner, Don F.; Cronin, William J., Jr. (1978). Bearing Stake Exercise: Sound Speed and Other Environmental Variability (PDF). New York: Naval Oceanographic Laboratory. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Hanish, S.; Rollins, C. R.; Cybulski, J. (February 1978), Acoustic Fluctuation Workshop (Technical paper) (PDF), Washington: Naval Research Laboratory, retrieved 5 June 2015
- Interagency Committee On Oceanography (June 1964). "United States participation in the International Indian Ocean Expedition and the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic". ICO Report #6lP-64. Interagency Committee On Oceanography. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Maritime Administration. "Kingsport Victory". Ship History Database Vessel Status Card. U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Maritime Administration. "Kingsport (AG-164)". Ship History Database Vessel Status Card. U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- National Archives. "Dew Line: Documentary Construction Footage (film)". Record Group 342: Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, 1900 - 2003. National Archives. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Naval History And Heritage Command. "Kingsport Victory". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History And Heritage Command.*NavSource. "USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164)". NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive. NavSource. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Uhlig, Thomas; Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael (2014). Spacecraft Operations. New York: Springer. ISBN 9783709118023. LCCN 2014945749. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- United States Court of Appeals Second Circuit. "191 F.2d 162 JOHANSEN, v. UNITED STATES No. 275, Docket 22012". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- U.S. Fleet Forces Command. "The Month of August in American Naval History". U.S. Fleet Forces Command. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Williamson, Mark (2006). Spacecraft Technology: the early years. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers. ISBN 9780863415531. LCCN 2008530215. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Personal account of USNS Kingsport
- The Kingsport (Photo & patch)
- USNS Kingsport (Falmouth, England) after removal of dome and in gray MSTS livery.