Tyumen Oblast

Tyumen Oblast
Тюменская область (Russian)


Coat of arms
Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Urals[1]
Economic region West Siberian[2]
Established August 14, 1944
Administrative center Tyumen
Government (as of March 2011)
  Governor Vladimir Yakushev[3]
  Legislature Oblast Duma
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
  Total 1,435,200 km2 (554,100 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Population (2010 Census)[5]
  Total 3,395,755
  Rank 36th
  Density[6] 2.37/km2 (6.1/sq mi)
  Urban 78.1%
  Rural 21.9%
Time zone(s) YEKT (UTC+05:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-TYU
License plates 72
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Tyumen Oblast (Russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Tyumen. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugsKhanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen is the largest city, with over half a million inhabitants. As of 2006, it is by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average.[9] Population: 3,395,755 (2010 Census).[5] It was established from several districts of Omsk and Kurgan Oblasts on August 14, 1944.


There are a variety of fauna and flora in this region. In the northern part can be found ptarmigan, walrus and Arctic fox.[10] Polar bears also occur in the extreme north; the genetic make-up of this Polar bear sub-population is genetically distinct from other circumpolar regions.[11] The contour of Tyumen region is often thought to have a heart shape; that is why it is sometimes called "A Heart of Russia".

The total territory is 160,100 km2. The Tyumen Region was founded in August 14, 1944. Tyumen Region includes two autonomous okrugs of the : Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous okrug–the Yugra and Yamalo-Nenetsk autonomous okrug – which are fully legitimate constituents of the. The territory is located in the basin of the river. The biggest rivers are the Tura, the Tobol, the, the Pyshma, the Iset and the Tavda. The hydro-geographical system is characterized with the prevalence of small rivers as well as the significant bogginess of their catchment areas and numerous lakes.

The Tyumen Region has a favourable geographical location being a connecting link between the eastern and western regions of the country, the oil-and-gas North and the industrial Urals.


Tyumen Oblast Administration building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tyumen CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

Tyumen Oblast Duma

The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Tyumen Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Tymen Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Tyumen Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Natural Resources

The region has large peat reserves. Large deposits of vivianite (ferric phosphate) (approximately 20% of world reserves) have been discovered in particular peat deposits, the usage of which may meet the phosphate fertilizers demand of the agriculture.

There are deposits of quartz sands, brick and expanded clays, sapropels, limestone. The region has large fresh and mineral water reserves. There are great prospects for oil fields development.

Over 44% of the land reserves in the south of the region are covered with forests. The main forest forming species are pine, birch, spruce, fir, aspen and larch.


The city of Tyumen is an important service center for the gas and oil industries in Russia. Due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the Motor, Rail, Water and Air way and its moderate climate Tyumen was an ideal base town for servicing the oil and gas industry of West Siberia. As a result, many world level oil and gas companies such as Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell (Salym Petroleum Development N.V.) have their representative offices there. Tyumen Oblast has the highest levels of oil and gas production of any region in Russia, which some argue has caused the high levels of economic inequality observed in the region.[12]

One of the main directions in the activity of the regional authorities is attracting investment in the region and building a friendly business environment.

The region is one of the regions with strong modern economy and society in . The economic growth rates of the region greatly exceed the average one. There is a stable growth of the leading economic indicators over the past 7 years. The gross regional product has increased by 2.3 times. One of the most important factors that determines the development of the region is investment. Their share in the gross regional product is 28.6%. The total investment in the fixed capital has increased by 3 times over the last 7 years. The total investment in the fixed capital in 2014 was 265 billion rubles. Industrial production has been growing steadily in recent years (the index of industrial production in the region is 113-117% per year). It is not oil and gas but processing industries.

Thus, in January–August 2015 the index of industrial production was 113.9% and processing industries was118.8%.For two and a half years, 24 new plants have been launched, 5 of which were built by foreign companies. There are over 300 projects with investments of over 1.5 trillion rubles. It is expected over 43.000 jobs. The regional economy advantage is its diversity, successful simultaneous development of different branches. One of the main directions in the activity of the regional authorities is attracting investment in the region. The Government of the region provides support for all stages of project implementation.

The most promising industries are oil production, oil processing, oil and gas chemistry and chemical manufacturing, mechanical engineering and metal working, power industry, forest and timber-processing industry, construction supplies manufacturing, ACI and food industry, shipbuilding and pharmaceuticals industry. The development and building of commercial property is in progress in the region. Over recent years a lot of new investment projects have been implemented; the foundation for creation and development of new industries has been laid, such as oil refining, light hydrocarbons (LPG) advanced refining, metallurgy, glass industry, production of construction materials, oil and gas mechanical engineering, timber processing.

A lot of activities aimed at attracting investors to build an industrial park in the region. So, there are all necessary bursty conditions for attracting investors by the offers formation of building industrial parks and special economic zones in the same area at regional level. Thus, a resident of the project can receive not only technical conditions and gas \ light connections but also benefits of property tax and income tax on the basis of the agreement of resident status. Also, the resident can receive subsidies for reimbursement of credit interest rate and 50% of the equipment cost purchased through leasing. So, the conditions are good for industrial and economic development.

The Tyumen Regional Duma adopted the bill "Concerning amendment of the Law of the region "Concerning Support of Particular Types of Industrial Activity in the Tyumen Region" which provides building of industrial parks. There is also another bill “Areas of economic development in the region”. The issue of the creation of industrial parks in Bogandinsky () and Borowsky () villages are on the agenda. Approximately 10 residents are working on these sites.

Agricultural complex

The center park of the city

The Tyumen region has all necessary food production as milk, meat, eggs, potatoes and vegetables. Agricultural production in 2006 has increased by 2 times. For many positions the Tyumen region takes the leading position of most types of categories in the Urals Federal District and Russia. Tyumen productions actively enter in the markets of other regions.

Agricultural complex in the Tyumen region consistently upgraded. In cattle breeding and plan growing is extensively used modern equipment. In recent years, we have achieved the following:

The genetic potential of cattle and poultry in the Tyumen region has reached the world level (dairy production of cattle complexes exceeded 8 thousand kg (Evika-Agro (8445 kg) and Padunskoe (8041 kg), 1 egg production of a hen is over 330 eggs per year; Tyumen broiler with an average daily gain of broilers in 54 grams a bird reaches marketable weight in 38 days);

• In 91% of areas involved in grain production, practiced sustainable agriculture;

• There are 18 dairy complexes equipped with modern milking systems, and computer control of a herd;

In the Tyumen, Nizhnetavdinsky and Kazansky districts adopted automatic milking farms with stations of voluntary milking and feeding the cows, which give a unique quality milk;

The share of heavy milking cattle in a breeder stock in the agricultural organizations has increased over five years from 40% to 70%;

Successfully development fisheries industries include the Sladkovsky, Kazansky and Berdyuzhsky districts; the share of potato and vegetable cultivation in open land by intensive and industrial technology is 93%.

Since 2006, the rape area has increased almost by 22 times, and the production of vegetable oils and protein feed additives has increased too.

Transport infrastructure

The Tyumen region is situated in the center of very important transport corridors, extending from east to west and connecting the regions of European Russia and the Urals to Siberia and the Far East and from north to south, linking the northern autonomous districts (YaNAO and Khanty) - large areas of oil and gas with the other regions of the Russian Federation and provides access to the countries of Central Asia, in the south of the region borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Abalakskoe pole

The regional transport is presented by the motor, railway, aviation and river communication system. The railway transport of the region takes the leading position in the freight traffic that has greatly increased in recent years.

Ocean freight is also important for the region. river port is the cargo center and a connection link between rail, road and air transport on the road system of .

The geographical location of the Roshchino international airport is beneficial for intermediate landings of aircraft on the trunk routes Europe - , the European part of - the Far East, . The airport renders services of conveyance of air passengers, delivery of mail and cargo on the internal and external airlines, performed by charter and regular flights. It is also a connection link between the north and south.

Administrative divisions


Population: 3,395,755(2010 Census);[5] 3,264,841(2002 Census);[13] 3,080,621(1989 Census).[14]

Ethnic groups

There were thirty-six recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each in Tyumen Oblast, making this one of the most multicultural oblasts in Russia. The national composition at the time of the 2010 Census was:[5]

Vital Statistics for 2011:[16]

Vital statistics for 2012

2009 - 1.78 | 2010 - 1.81 | 2011 - 1.83 | 2012 - 1.99 | 2013 - 2.00 | 2014 - 2.07 | 2015 - 2.05(e)


Religion in Tyumen Oblast (2012)[19][20]

  Russian Orthodox (28.9%)
  Other Orthodox (9%)
  Muslim (6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (4%)
  Rodnover (2%)
  Protestant (1%)
  Hindu (0.4%)
  Spiritual but not religious (34%)
  Atheist (11%)
  Other or undeclared (3.7%)

According to a 2012 official survey[19] 28.9% of the population of Tyumen Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Orthodox Churches, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are members of Protestant churches. 6% of the population is composed of Muslims, 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 34% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 11% is atheist, and 3.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[19]


A minor planet 2120 Tyumenia discovered in 1967 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after Tyumen Oblast.[21]

See also


  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Official website of Tyumen Oblast. Vladimir Vladimirovich Yakushev, Governor of Tyumen Oblast (Russian)
  4. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. (The rank is given without the autonomous okrugs' populations; the population and percentages are given for the territory of the oblast with the autonomous okrugs)
  6. The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  7. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения
  10. Bruce Forbes, The End of the Earth: Threats to the Yamal Region's Cultural and Biological Diversity
  11. C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  12. Buccellato, T; T. Mickiewicz (2009). "Oil and Gas: A Blessing for the few. Hydrocarbons and inequality in Russia" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 61 (3): 385–407. doi:10.1080/09668130902753275.
  13. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  14. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  15. Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  16. Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации. Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. 1 2 3 Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  20. 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  21. Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
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