Transport in India
Transport is an important part of India's economy but it is poor in comparison with international standards. Since the economic liberalisation of the 1990s, infrastructure development has progressed rapidly; today there is a variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. However, India's relatively low GDP per capita has meant that access to transport has not been uniform.
Public transport remains the primary mode of transport for most of the livelihood India, and India's public transport systems are among the most heavily used in the world. India's rail network is the 4th longest and the most heavily used system in the world, transporting 8,224 million passengers and over 969 million tonnes of freight annually, as of 2012.
Motor vehicle population in India is low by international standards, with only 24.85 million cars on the nation's roads as of 2013. The number of two-wheelers like motorcycle and scooter is considerably higher at 132.55 million. In total, about 21 per cent households have two wheelers whereas only 4.7 per cent of households in India have cars/jeeps/vans as per 2011 Census. Despite this, the number of deaths caused by traffic is amongst the highest in the world and is still increasing. The automobile industry in India is currently rapidly growing with an annual production of over 4.6 million vehicles, with an annual growth rate of 10.5% and vehicle volume is expected to rise greatly in the future.
In 2015-16, Government of India, declared 106 National Waterways (NW) under Inland Waterways Authority of India to reduce the cost of transportation and lower the carbon footprint by moving the traffic from surface roads and railroads to waterways.
Despite ongoing improvements in the sector, several aspects of transportation are still riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure and lack of investment in less economically active parts of the country. The demand for transport infrastructure and services has been rising by around 10% a year with the current infrastructure being unable to meet these growing demands. According to Goldman Sachs, India will need to spend US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects over the next decade to boost economic growth, of which US$500 billion is budgeted to be spent during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan.
In ancient times, even with decent road system, there was no means for transportation and people covered long distances on foot or bullock carts. For instance, Adi Sankaracharya travelled all over India from Kalady near Kochi. Walking still constitutes an important mode of transport in urban areas. In the city of Mumbai, to further improve the transit conditions for pedestrians, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, has commenced the construction of more than 50 skywalks, as part of the Mumbai Skywalk project, which is very helpful as walk enthusiasts take part in it and there is absolutely no traffic over there.
Palanquins, also known as palkis or pallakiis, were one of the luxurious methods used by the rich and noblemen for travelling. This was primarily used in the past to carry a deity or idol of a God, and many temples have sculptures of God being carried in a palki. Later on, it was primarily used by European noblemen and ladies from the upper classes of society prior to the advent of the railways in India. Modern use of the palanquin is limited to Indian weddings and Pilgrimage.
Hand-pulled rickshaw is still available in the city of Kolkata wherein a person pulls the rickshaw by hand. The Government of West Bengal proposed a ban on these rickshaws in 2005 describing them as "inhuman". Though a bill aiming to address this issue, termed as 'Calcutta Hackney Carriage Bill', was passed by the West Bengal Assembly in 2006, it has not been implemented yet. The Government of West Bengal is working on an amendment of this bill to avoid the loopholes that got exposed when the Hand-pulled Rickshaw Owner's Association filed a petition against the bill.
Bullock cart and horse carriage
Bullock carts have been traditionally used for transport, especially in rural India. The arrival of the British saw drastic improvements in the horse carriages which were used for transport since early days. Today, they are used in smaller towns and are referred as Tonga or buggies. Victorias of Mumbai are still used for tourist purposes, but horse carriages are now rarely found in the metro cities of India. In recent years large cities have banned the movement of bullock carts and other slow moving vehicles on the main roads.
Bicycles, or cycles have ownership rates ranging from around 30% to 70% at the state level. Along with walking, cycling accounts for 50 to 75% of the commuter trips for those in the informal sector in urban areas.
However, recent developments suggest that bicycle riding is fast becoming popular in the metro cities of India. Today, government development authorities all over India encourage the setup and use of separate bicycle lanes alongside the roads to combat pollution and ease traffic congestion.
Cycle rickshaws were introduced in India in the 1940s. They are bigger than a tricycle where two people sit on an elevated seat at the back and a person pedals from the front. In the late 2000s, they were banned in several cities for causing traffic congestion. Cycle rickshaws have been a feature of Delhi streets since Indian independence in 1947, providing the cheapest way around the capital. The Delhi Police recently submitted an affidavit against plying of cycle rickshaws to ease traffic congestion in the city but it was dismissed by the Delhi High Court. In addition, environmentalists have supported the retention of cycle rickshaws as a non-polluting and inexpensive mode of transport.
Public road transport
Public transport is the predominant mode of motorised local travel in cities. This is predominantly by road, since commuter rail services are available only in the seven metropolitan cities of Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Pune, while dedicated city bus services are known to operate in at least 25 cities with a population of over one million. Intermediate public transport modes like tempos and cycle rickshaws assume importance in medium size cities. However, the share of buses is negligible in most Indian cities as compared to personalised vehicles, and two-wheelers and cars account for more than 80 percent of the vehicle population in most large cities.
Generally, traffic in most of the cities in India moves slowly, where traffic jams and accidents are very common, but in some cities like Chandigarh, wide roads and less vehicles contribute to lesser traffic. India has very poor records on road safely—around 90,000 people die from road accidents every year. At least 13 people die every hour in road accidents in the country,also in the year 2007 road accidents claimed more than 130,000 lives, overtaking China. A Reader's Digest study of traffic congestion in Asian cities ranked several Indian cities within the Top Ten for worst traffic.
Buses take up over 90% of public transport in Indian cities, and serve as a cheap and convenient mode of transport for all classes of society. Services are mostly run by state government owned transport corporations. However, after the economic liberalisation, all those government state transport corporations have introduced various facilities like low-floor buses for the disabled and air-conditioned buses to attract private car owners to help decongest roads. Mumbai introduced air conditioned buses in 1998. Bangalore was the first city in India to introduce Volvo B7RLE intra-city buses in India in January 2005 . Bengaluru is the first Indian city to have an air-conditioned bus stop, located near Cubbon Park. It was built by airtel. The city of Chennai houses one of Asia's largest bus terminus, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus.
Bus Rapid Transit System
Most of the traditional taxicabs in India are either Premier Padmini or Hindustan Ambassador cars. Depending on the city/state, taxis can either be hailed or hired from taxi-stands. In cities such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, taxis need to be hired over phone, whereas in cities like Kolkata and Mumbai, taxis can be hailed on the street. According to government of India regulations, all taxis are required to have a fare-meter installed. There are additional surcharges for luggage, late-night rides and toll taxes are to be paid by the passenger. Since 2006, radio taxis have become increasingly popular with the public due to reasons of safety and convenience. In cities and localities where taxis are expensive or do not ply as per the government or municipal regulated fares, people use share taxis. These are normal taxis which carry one or more passengers travelling to destinations either en route to the final destination, or near the final destination. The passengers are charged according to the number of people with different destinations. A similar system exists for autorickshaws, known as share autos. The city of Mumbai will soon be the first city in India, to have an "in-taxi" magazine, titled MumBaee, which will be issued to taxis which are part of the Mumbai Taximen's Union. The magazine debuted on 13 July 2009. In Kolkata there are many no refusal taxis available with white and blue in colour.
An auto rickshaw is a three-wheeler vehicle for hire that does not have doors and is generally characterised by a small cabin for the driver in the front and a seat for passengers in the rear. Generally it is painted in yellow, green or black color and has a black, yellow or green canopy on the top, but designs vary considerably from place to place. The color of the autorickshaw is also determined by the fuel that it is powered by, for example Agartala, Ahmedabad, Mumbai and Delhi have green or black autos indicating the use of compressed natural gas, whereas the autos of Kolkata, Bengaluru have green autos indicating the use of LPG.
In Mumbai and other metropolitan cities, 'autos' or 'rickshaws' as they are popularly known have regulated metered fares. A recent law prohibits auto rickshaw drivers from charging more than the specified fare, or charging night-fare before midnight, and also prohibits the driver from refusing to go to a particular location. Mumbai and Kolkata are also the only two cities which prohibit auto rickshaws from entering a certain part of the city, in these cases being South Mumbai and certain parts of Downtown Kolkata. However, in cities like Chennai, it is common to see autorickshaw drivers demand more than the specified fare and refuse to use fare meter
Airports and railway stations at many cities such as Howrah, Chennai and Bengaluru provide a facility of prepaid auto booths, where the passenger pays a fixed fare as set by the authorities for various locations.
A new popular means of transport, rapidly grew in number in India, due to low running and initial cost, other economic and environment benefits, these vehicles are becoming popular in India. E Rickshaws are made in fiberglass or metal body, powered by a BLDC Electric Motor with max power 2000W and speed 25 km/h.
Urban rail transport
The present suburban railway services in India are limited and are operational only in Mumbai, Kolkata, Pune, Chennai, Delhi and Hyderabad and Bengaluru. The Mumbai Suburban Railway is the first rail system in India which began services in Mumbai in 1867, transports 6.3 million passengers daily and has the highest passenger density in the world. The first rapid transit system in India, the Kolkata Suburban Railway, was established in Kolkata in 1854. Its first service ran between Howrah and Hooghly covering a distance of 38.6 km (24 mi).
Urban mass rapid transit
The first modern rapid transit in India is the Kolkata Metro and started its operations in 1984, this is also the 17th Zone of the Indian Railways. The Delhi Metro in New Delhi is India's second conventional metro and began operations in 2002. The Namma Metro in Bangalore is India's third operational rapid transit and began operations in 2011. Currently, rapid transit systems have been deployed in these cities and more are under construction or in planning in several major cities of India like Chennai which will be opened shortly.
- Cities with metro systems:
- Kolkata Metro
- Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System
- Delhi Metro
- Bengaluru Metro
- Mumbai Metro
- Rapid Metro Rail Gurgaon
- Jaipur Metro
- Chennai Metro
- Metro systems under construction
- Hyderabad Metro
- Navi Mumbai Metro
- Kochi Metro
- Lucknow Metro (Started on 26 September 2014)
- Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad
- Surat Metro
- nagpur maazi metro
Monorail in India is generally considered as feeder system for the Metro train. The Mumbai Monorail is the first operational monorail network in India (excluding the Skybus Metro Test Track in Goa) since the Patiala State Monorail Trainways closed in 1927.
Yellow background for the systems that are currently in progress. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning.
|System||City||Opening Year||System length (km)||No. of lines||No. of lines under construction|
|Mumbai Monorail||Mumbai||2 February 2014||8.26||1|
|Thiruvananthapuram Monorail||Thiruvananthapuram||Scrapped and replaced by Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro||22.50||2|
|Kozhikode Monorail||Kozhikode||Scrapped and replaced by Kozhikode Light Metro||35||1|
|Navi Mumbai Monorail||Navi Mumbai||2014||38||2|
Like Monorails, Light rail is also considered as a feeder system for the Metro systems. Two Light rail projects have been proposed in Delhi and Kolkata.
|System||City||Opening Year||System length (km)||No. of lines||No. of lines under construction|
|Delhi Light transist rail||Delhi||45||3|
The arrival of British rule in India saw trams in addition to trains, being introduced in many cities including Bombay and Kolkata. The Kolkata tram is currently the only tram system in the country and provides an emission-free means of transport in Kolkata while the other tram systems in India were phased out. The nationalised Calcutta Tramways Company is in the process of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of ₹240 million (US$3.6 million). Presently the limited tram system in India is extremely slow and technologically backward, new light rail projects are being proposed rather than traditional tram projects which have one reason or another not been very successful in the country. However, there are some proposals to reintroduce trams as a new transport avatar in some new Indian cities. There are also plans to introduce trams in medium-sized cities.
Other local transport
Motorised two-wheel vehicles like scooters, motorcycles and mopeds are very popular mode of transport due to their fuel efficiency and ease of use in congested roads or streets. The number of two-wheelers sold is several times that of cars. There were 47.5 million powered two-wheelers in India in 2003 compared with just 8.6 million cars. Yamaha, Hero MotoCorp(formerly Hero Honda), Honda, TVS Motors, Bajaj Auto, DC motorworks and Mahindra 2 Wheelers are the largest two-wheeler companies in terms of market-share. Royal Enfield, an iconic brand name in the country, manufactures different variants of the British Bullet motorcycle which is a classic motorcycle that is still in production.
Manufacture of scooters in India started when Automobile Products of India (API), set up at Mumbai and incorporated in 1949, began assembling Innocenti-built Lambretta scooters in India post independence. They eventually acquired licence for the Li150 series model, of which they began full-fledged production from the early sixties onwards. In 1972, Scooters India Ltd (SIL), a state-run enterprise based in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, bought the entire manufacturing rights of the last Innocenti Lambretta model. API has infrastructural facilities at Mumbai, Aurangabad, and Chennai but has been non-operational since 2002. SIL stopped producing scooters in 1998.
Motorcycles and scooters can be rented in many cities. Wearing protective headgear is mandatory for both the rider and the pillion-rider in most cities.
Private vehicles account for 30% of the total transport demand in urban areas of India. An average of 963 new private vehicles are registered every day in Delhi alone. The number of automobiles produced in India rose from 6.3 million (6.3 million) in 2002–03 to 11 million (11.2 million) in 2008–09. However, India still has a very low rate of car ownership. When comparing car ownership between BRIC developing countries, it is on a par with China, and exceeded by Brazil and Russia.
Compact cars, especially hatchbacks predominate due to affordability, fuel efficiency, congestion, and lack of parking space in most cities. Chennai is known as the "Detroit of India" for its automobile industry. Maruti, Hyundai and Tata Motors are the most popular brands in the order of their market share. The Ambassador once had a monopoly but is now an icon of pre-liberalisation India, and is still used by taxi companies. Maruti 800 launched in 1984 created the first revolution in the Indian auto sector because of its low pricing. It had the highest market share until 2004, when it was overtaken by other low-cost models from Maruti such as the Alto and the Wagon R, the Indica from Tata Motors and the Santro from Hyundai. Over the 20-year period since its introduction, about 2.4 million units of the Maruti 800 have been sold. However, with the launch of the Tata Nano, the least expensive production car in the world, Maruti 800 lost its popularity.
India is also known for a variety of indigenous vehicles made in villages out of simple motors and vehicle spare-parts. A few of these innovations are the Jugaad, Maruta, Chhakda, peter rehda and the Fame.
In the city of Bengaluru, Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police, launched a carpooling drive which has involved celebrities such as Robin Uthappa, and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. The initiative got a good response, and by the end of May 2009, 10,000 people are said to have carpooled in the city.
The first utility vehicle in India was manufactured by Mahindra and Mahindra. It was a copy of the original Jeep and was manufactured under licence. The vehicle was an instant hit and made Mahindra one of the top companies in India. The Indian Army and police extensively use Mahindra vehicles along with Maruti Gypsys for transporting personnel and equipment.
Tata Motors, the automobile manufacturing arm of the Tata Group, launched its first utility vehicle, the Tata Sumo, in 1994. The Sumo, owing to its then-modern design, captured a 31% share of the market within two years. The Tempo trax from Force Motors till recently was ruling the rural areas. Sports utility vehicles now form a sizeable part of the passenger vehicle market. Models from Tata, Honda, Hyundai, Ford, Chevrolet and other brands are available.
Long distance transport
Rail services in India, first introduced in 1853, are provided by the state-run Indian Railways under the supervision of the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways provides an important mode of transport in India, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily across one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world. The proposal to construct to build the highest railway track in the world from Manali to Leh overtaking current record of Beijing-Lhasa Railway line has not been taken up for implementation. By 1947, the year of India's independence, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. Indian Railways is divided into seventeen zones including the Kolkata Metro Railway. The city of Kolkata is the Headquarters of three Railway Zones in India namely Eastern Railway zone, South Eastern Railway Zone and the Kolkata Metro.The Indian Railways are further sub-divided into sixty seven divisions, each having a divisional headquarters.
The rail network traverses through the length and breadth of the country, covering more than 7,000 stations over a total route length of more than 65,000 km (40,000 mi) and track length of about 115,000 km (71,000 mi). About 22,224 km (13,809 mi) or 34% of the route-kilometre was electrified as on 31 March 2012. Indian Railways is the world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million employees. As to rolling stock, IR owns over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities. It operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges, and is in the process of converting most of the metre gauge (5,000 km (3,100 mi) at end of 2012) and narrow gauge tracks into broad gauge in a project called Project Unigauge.
The Indian Railways runs a number of special types of services which are given higher priority. The Rajdhani trains introduced in 1969 provides connectivity between the national capital, Delhi and capitals of the states. On the other hand, Shatabdi Express provides connectivity between centres of tourism, pilgrimage or business. The Shatabdi Express trains run over short to medium distances and do not have sleepers while the Rajdhani Expresses run over longer distances and have only sleeping accommodation. Both series of trains have a maximum permissible speed of 110 to 140 km/h (81 to 87 mph) but average speed of less than 100 km/h. The 12001 Bhopal Shatabdi express, however, runs at a peak speed of 150 km/h on small stretches which makes it the fastest train in India. The other specialised services operated by the Railways are the Duronto Express (without any commercial stop between the origin and the destination but with a few technical stops for crew change and food intake) and Garib Raths that provide cheap no-frill airconditioned rail travel. Besides, The Indian Railways also operates a number of luxury trains which cater to various tourist circuits. For instance, the Palace on Wheels serves the Rajasthan circuit and The Golden Chariot serves the Karnataka and Goa circuits. There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on IR – the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain railways of India. The latter is not a contiguous railway line but comprises the following three separate historic railway lines located in different parts of India:
- The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a 610 mm (2 ft) narrow gauge railway in West Bengal.
- The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge railway to Ooty in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu
- The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik mountains in Himachal Pradesh.
The Indian Railways has also initiated a number of highly ambitious projects to provide connectivity to the remote and inaccessible areas of the country. The 738 km long Konkan Railway with around 2000 bridges and 92 tunnels is one such highly difficult project through fragile mountainous terrain of the Konkan region Salient features of Konkan railway to connect two important port cities of Mangaluru and Mumbai by a short route and was constructed in 1991-1998. Another such highly ambitious project is the Kashmir Railway, the Kashmir valley part of which was completed in 2009.
Proposals have been made to construct high-speed railway lines in India but no concrete action has been taken. In 1999, the Konkan Railway Corporation introduced the Roll on Roll off (RORO) service, a unique road-rail synergy system, on the section between Kolad in Maharashtra and Verna in Goa, which was extended up to Surathkal in Karnataka in 2004. The RORO service, the first of its kind in India, allowed trucks to be transported on flatbed trailers. It was highly popular, carrying about 110,000 trucks and bringing in about ₹ 740 million worth of earnings to the corporation till 2007.
As the railway tracks from Kandla, Pipavav, Mundra and other ports in Saurashtra to Ahmedabad and Palanpur and then to Rewari via Ringas are not electrified, freight trains (goods trains) with containers double-stacked ply on this route to Rewari junction and then take the containers further north from Rewari. Infringements like low road overbridges and foot overbridges that fouled with double-stacked containers were either dismantled or raised in years 2004-06 for running these freight trains. In India freight (goods) trains can carry standard containers double-stacked on flat-bed wagons with normal axle load of about 22 tonnes and do not require special low-bed wagons unlike in other countries that have (relatively narrow) 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge. They carry almost 4000 tonnes per rake which is almost twice the load a normal goods train can haul. Some double-stacked container freight trains on this route through Rewari station also carry "high cube" containers that are 2896 mm (9 ft 6-inch) high (higher than standard containers that are generally 8 ft or 2.438 mm high) on special low-well wagons owned by private clients. Some private logistics operators have built container storage yards north of Rewari near Garhi Harsaru for this purpose.
Rail links between India and neighbouring countries are not well-developed. Two trains operate to Pakistan—the Samjhauta Express between Delhi and Lahore, and the Thar Express between Jodhpur and Karachi. Bangladesh is connected by a biweekly train, the Maitree Express that runs from Kolkata to Dhaka. Nominal rail links to Nepal exist—passenger services between Jaynagar and Bijalpura, and freight services between Raxaul and Birganj.
Indian and Bangladeshi governments will start work late by December or early by January 2015 on a new rail link to ease surface transport. India will build a 15-km railway tracks linking Tripura's capital Agartala with Bangladesh's southeastern city of Akhaura, an important railway junction connected to Chittagong port, resource-rich Sylhet and Dhaka. An agreement to implement the railway project was signed between India's former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina during her visit to India in January 2010. Total cost of the proposed project is estimated at Rs.252 crore. The Indian Railway Construction Company (IRCON) would lay the new railway tracks on both sides of the border. Of the 15 km rail line, five km of tracks fall in the Indian territory. The NFR is now laying tracks to connect Tripura's southern most border town Sabroom, 135 km south of here. From Sabroom, the Chittagong international sea port is just 72 km.
No rail link exists with Myanmar but a railway line is to be built through from Jiribam (in Manipur) to Tamu through Imphal and Moreh. The construction of this missing link, as per the feasibility study conducted by the Ministry of External Affairs through RITES Ltd, is estimated to cost ₹29.41 billion (US$440 million). An 18 km railway link with Bhutan is being constructed from Hashimara in West Bengal to Toribari in Bhutan. No rail link exists with either China or Sri Lanka,. A railway line is being built from Siliguri to Rangpo in Sikkim but there are no plans to extend it further north towards China.
India has a network of National Highways connecting all the major cities and state capitals, forming the economic backbone of the country. As of 2013, India has a total of 70,934 km (44,076 mi) of National Highways, of which 1,208 km (751 mi) are classified as expressways. Under National Highways Development Project (NHDP), work is under progress to equip some of the important national highways with four lanes; also there is a plan to convert some stretches of these roads to six lanes. However congestion and bureaucratic delays en route ensure that trucking goods from Gurgaon to the port in Mumbai can take up to 10 days.
As per the National Highways Authority of India, about 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads. The National Highways carry about 40% of total road traffic, though only about 2% of the road network is covered by these roads. Average growth of the number of vehicles has been around 10.16% per annum over recent years. Highways have facilitated development along the route and many towns have sprung up along major highways. Road transport Benchmark Freight Index (BFI) initiative taken in India recently by ITRANS.
All national highways are metalled, but very few are constructed of concrete, the most notable being the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. In recent years construction has commenced on a nationwide system of multi-lane highways, including the Golden Quadrilateral and North-South and East-West Corridors which link the largest cities in India. In 2000, around 40% of villages in India lacked access to all-weather roads and remained isolated during the monsoon season.
To improve rural connectivity, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (Prime Minister's Rural Road Program), a project funded by the Central Government with the help of World Bank, was launched in 2000 to build all-weather roads to connect all habitations with a population of 500 or above (250 or above for hilly areas).
As per 2013 estimates, the total road length in India is 4,689,842 km (2,914,133 mi); making the Indian road network the second largest road network in the world after the United States. At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometre of land the density of India’s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20).
|Type of Road||Length|
|Expressways||1,208 km (751 mi) as of 2011|
|National Highways||79,116 km (49,160 mi)|
|State Highways||155,716 km (96,757 mi)|
|District, Rural and Other Roads||4,455,010 km (2,768,210 mi)|
|Total Length||4,689,842 km (2,914,133 mi) (Approx)|
Buses are an important means of public transport in India, particularly in the countryside and remote areas where the rail network cannot be accessed and airline operations are few or non-existent. Due to this social significance, public bus transport is predominantly owned and operated by public agencies, and most state governments operate bus services through a State Road Transport Corporation. KSRTC, MSRTC, APSRTC, KeSRT (Kerala state road transport corporation). These corporations, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s, have proven extremely useful in connecting villages and towns across the country.
Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the national regulatory body for the aviation industry. It is controlled by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. The ministry also controls aviation related autonomous organisations like the Airports Authority of India (AAI), Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS), Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi and Public Sector Undertakings including Air India, Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
Air India is India's national flag carrier after merging with Indian (airline) in 2011 and plays a major role in connecting India with the rest of the world. IndiGo, Jet Airways, Air India, Spicejet and GoAir are the major carriers in order of their market share. These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India and also operate overseas routes after the liberalisation of Indian aviation. Several other foreign airlines connect Indian cities with other major cities across the globe. However, a large section of country's air transport potential remains untapped, even though the Mumbai-Delhi air corridor was ranked 10th by Amadeus in 2012 among the world's busiest routes.
Civil Aviation in India traces its beginnings back to the year 1911, when the first commercial civil aviation flight took off from Allahabad for Naini on 18 February. Henri Pequet, a French aviator, carried 6,500 mails on a Humber biplane. On October 15, 1932, J.R.D. Tata flew a consignment of mail from Karachi to Juhu Airport. His airline later became Air India.
In March 1953, the Indian Parliament passed the Air Corporations Act. India's airline industry was nationalised and the eight domestic airlines operating independently at that time, Deccan Airways, Airways India, Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga Airlines, Indian National Airways, Air India and Air Services of India were merged into two government owned entities. Indian Airlines focussed on domestic routes and Air India International on international services. The International Airports Authority of India (IAAI) was constituted in 1972 while the National Airports Authority was constituted in 1986. The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security was established in 1987 following the tragic crash of Air India Flight 182. Pushpaka Aviation operated scheduled international passenger flights from Bombay to Sharjah, as an associate carrier of Air India from 1979 to 1983.
East-West Airlines was the first national level private airline to operate in the country after the government de-regularised the civil aviation sector in 1991. The government allowed private airlines to operate charter and non-scheduled services under the ‘Air Taxi’ Scheme until 1994, when the Air Corporation Act was repealed and private airlines could now operate scheduled services. Private airlines like Jet Airways, Air Sahara, Modiluft, Damania Airways and NEPC Airlines among others commenced domestic operations during this period.
Air India placed orders for more than 68 jets from Boeing for US$7.5 billion in 2006 while Indian placed orders for 43 jets from Airbus for US$2.5 billion in 2005. Jet Airways invested millions of dollars to increase its fleet, but was later put on hold due to the recent economic slowdown. IndiGo announced orders for 100 Airbus A320s worth US$6 billion during the Paris Air Show, the highest by any Asian domestic carrier. Kingfisher Airlines became the first Indian air carrier on 15 June 2005 to order Airbus A380 aircraft worth US$3 billion.
More than half a dozen low-cost carriers entered the Indian market in 2004–05. Major new entrants included Air Deccan, Air Sahara, Kingfisher Airlines, SpiceJet, GoAir, Paramount Airways and IndiGo. But Indian aviation industry struggled due to economic slowdown, rising fuel and operation costs. This led to consolidation, buy outs and discontinuations in the Indian airline industry. In 2007, Air Sahara and Air Deccan were acquired by Jet Airways and Kingfisher Airlines respectively. Paramount Airways ceased operations in 2010 and Kingfisher shut down in 2012. Etihad Airways agreed to acquire 24% stake in Jet in 2013. AirAsia India, a low cost carrier operating as a joint venture between Air Asia and Tata Sons launched in 2014. As of 2013–14, only IndiGo and GoAir were generating profits.
While there are 346 civilian airfields in India - 253 with paved runways and 93 with unpaved runways, only 132 were classified as "airports" as of November 2014. Of these, the state owned Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai handle more than a half of the air traffic in the country. The operations of the major airports in India have been privatised over the past 5 years and this has resulted in better equipped and cleaner airports. The terminals have either been refurbished or expanded.
India also has 33 "ghost airports," which were built in an effort to make air travel more accessible for those in remote regions but are now non-operational due to a lack of demand. The Jaisalmer Airport in Rajasthan, for example, was completed in 2013 and was expected to host 300,000 passengers a year but has yet to see any commercial flights take off. Despite the number of non-operational airports, India is currently planning on constructing another 200 "low-cost" airports over the next 20 years.
Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited is a public sector company that provides helicopter services to ONGC to its off-shore locations, and also to various State Governments in India, particularly in North-east India.
Ports and shipping
India has a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi). and thus ports are the main centres of trade. In India about 95% of the foreign trade by quantity and 70% by value takes place through the ports. Mumbai Port & JNPT(Navi Mumbai) handles 70% of maritime trade in India. There are twelve major ports: Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, Kochi, Kolkata (including Haldia), Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin, New Mangaluru, Mormugao and Kandla. Other than these, there are 187 minor and intermediate ports, 43 of which handle cargo.
Maritime transportation in India is managed by the Shipping Corporation of India, a government-owned company that also manages offshore and other marine transport infrastructure in the country. It owns and operates about 35% of Indian tonnage and operates in practically all areas of shipping business servicing both national and international trades.The only state which carries three ports in India is Tamil Nadu, they are Ennore, Chennai and Tuticorin.
It has a fleet of 79 ships of 2750,000 GT (4.8 million DWT) and also manages 53 research, survey and support vessels of 120,000 GT (060,000 DWT) on behalf of various government departments and other organisations. Personnel are trained at the Maritime Training Institute in Mumbai, a branch of the World Maritime University, which was set up in 1987. The Corporation also operates in Malta and Iran through joint ventures.
The distinction between major and minor ports is not based on the amount of cargo handled. The major ports are managed by port trusts which are regulated by the central government. They come under the purview of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963. The minor ports are regulated by the respective state governments and many of these ports are private ports or captive ports. The total amount of traffic handled at the major ports in 2005-2006 was 382.33 Mt.
India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. The total navigable length is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi), out of which about 5,200 km (3,231 mi) of river and 485 km (301 mi) of canals can be used by mechanised crafts. Freight transport by waterways is highly underutilised in India compared to other large countries. The total cargo moved by inland waterways is just 0.15% of the total inland traffic in India, compared to the corresponding figures of 20% for Germany and 32% for Bangladesh.
Cargo that is transported in an organised manner is confined to a few waterways in Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala. The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India. It does the function of building the necessary infrastructure in these waterways, surveying the economic feasibility of new projects and also administration and regulation. The following waterways have been declared as National Waterways:
- National Waterway 1: Allahabad–Haldia stretch of the Ganga - Bhagirathi - Hooghly river system with a total length of 1,620 kilometres (1,010 mi) in October 1986.
- National Waterway 2: Saidiya–Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river system with a total length of 891 kilometres (554 mi) in 1988.
- National Waterway 3: Kollam–Kottapuram stretch of the West Coast Canal along with Champakara and Udyogmandal canals, with a total length of 205 kilometres (127 mi) in 1993.
- National Waterway 4: Bhadrachalam–Rajahmundry and Wazirabad–Vijaywada stretch of the Krishna–Godavari river system along with the Kakinada–Pondicherry canal network, with a total length of 1,095 km (680 mi) in 2007.
- National Waterway 5: Mangalgadi–Paradeep and Talcher–Dhamara stretch of the Mahanadi–Brahmani river system along with the East Coast Canal, with a total length of 623 km (387 mi) in 2007.
- Length of pipelines for crude oil is 20,000 km (12,427 mi).
- Length of Petroleum products pipeline is 15,000 km (9,321 mi).
- Length of Natural gas pipelines is 15,000 km (9,321 mi).
Environmental issues and impact
The National capital New Delhi has one of the largest CNG based transport systems as a part of the drive to bring down pollution. In spite of these efforts it remains the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions in the city. The CNG Bus manufacturers in India are Ashok Leyland, Tata Motors, Swaraj Mazda and Hindustan Motors.
In 1998, the Supreme Court of India published a Directive that specified the date of April 2001 as deadline to replace or convert all buses, three-wheelers and taxis in Delhi to compressed natural gas.
The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation was the first State Transport Undertaking in India to utilise bio-fuels and ethanol-blended fuels. KSRTC took an initiative to do research in alternative fuel forms by experimenting with various alternatives— blending diesel with biofuels such as honge, palm, sunflower, groundnut, coconut and sesame. In 2009, the corporation decided to promote the use of biofuel buses.
- Public transport in Mumbai
- Traffic collisions in India
- Transport in Chennai
- Transport in Delhi
- Transport in Hyderabad
- Transport in Vijayawada
- Transport in Himachal Pradesh
- Transport in Karnataka
- Transport in Kollam
- Transport in Kolkata
- North-South Transport Corridor
- Ashgabat agreement, a Multimodal transport agreement signed by India, Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, for creating an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
- "India Transport Sector". World Bank.
- "Indian Railways Yearbook-2011-12" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Registered Motor Vehicles in India 1951-2013" (CSV). data.gov.in. 2014. p. 1.
- Ramesh, Randeep (11 January 2008). "India gears up for mass motoring revolution with £1,260 car". The Guardian. London.
- "MOTOR VEHICLE WRITUP - Statistical Year Book, India 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 2015. p. 7. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Bicycle Ownership in India". Bike-eu.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Olga Khazan (18 January 2013). "A surprising map of countries that have the most traffic deaths". Washington Post.
- "India has the highest number of road accidents in the world". DW.COM.
- "World Motor Vehicle Production by Country: 2008-2009". OICA.
- S. Kalyana Ramanathan. "India to top in car volumes by 2050". Rediff.
- Government groups 106 national waterways in three categories
- Shobana Chandra (17 September 2009). "U.S. Pension Funds May Invest in Indian Road Projects, Nath Says". Bloomberg. New York.
- Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya: The Traditional Life of Sri Sankaracharya by Madhava-Vidyaranya. India: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-434-1.
- Tiwari, Geetam. "URBAN TRANSPORT IN INDIAN CITIES" (PDF). London School of Economics. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "MMRDA — Projects — Skywalk". MMRDA. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
- S.Shanker (23 November 2008). "Mumbai pedestrians can walk safe in the sky". The Hindu Business Line. p. 1. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
- "Palanquin". Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed., 1911. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Hand-pulled rickshaws to go off Kolkata roads". Online edition of The Indian Express, dated 2005-08-15. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Legal, Our (31 October 2008). "Rule review for rickshaw ban". Online edition of The Telegraph, dated 2008-10-31. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Banerjee, Rumu (18 January 2009). "Fading tongas on their last ride". Online edition of the Times of India, dated 2009-01-18. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Marianne De Nazareth. "Imperial jhutka on an exit march". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2002-04-08. Archived from the original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Firoz Bakht Ahmed (19 December 2002). "Road to nowhere". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2002-12-19. Chennai, India. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Starting today, tourist buses, trucks can't drive into city". Online edition of The Indian Express, dated 2004-07-01. Archived from the original on 10 July 2004. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Singh, Amit (20 January 2010). "Now, paddle your way across Delhi". Mid-day.com. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Farrell, Sean. "The Taj Mahal: Pollution and Tourism". Trade and Environment Database (TED)(American University). Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- "Rickshaw ban from today". Online edition of The Times of India, dated 2007-06-09. 9 June 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Ban on slow vehicles in select areas likely". Online edition of The Telegraph, dated 2006-09-29. Calcutta, India. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Ban on fish-carts extended". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2002-10-15. Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- "New Delhi News : Police opinion on plying of cycle-rickshaws irks Court". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Cycle rickshaws: Victims of car mania" (PDF). Centre for Science and Environment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Sanjay K. Singh. "Review of Urban Transportation in India" (PDF). Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Chandigarh Roads"
- Moore, Ted (14 May 2007). "Traffic Accidents Kill At Least 51 In India On Monday". ENews 2.0. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- "Report of Committee for study of the applicability of Variable Message Sign (VMS) on NHs inter-alia for finalization of Interim Guidelines." (PDF). Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. 24 October 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "India leads world in road deaths: WHO". TOI. 17 August 2009.
- Ramesh, Randeep (11 October 2008). "India's deadly roads". London: The Guardian.
- John Pucher; Nisha Korattyswaropam; Neha Mittal; Neenu Ittyerah. "Urban transport crisis in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2007.
- "Landmarks in Transport". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
- "BMTC The Present". Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
- "A timeline of BEST buses in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. 29 June 2013. Retrieved Mar 11, 2015.
- "Volvo's first city buses in India operating". Volvo Buses. 25 January 2006. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Volvo to foray into city bus segment in India". The Hindu Businessline. 9 August 2005. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Volvo intra-city buses to hit B'lore roads on Jan 17". The Financial Express. 11 January 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "India Gets First AC Bus Stop!". EfyTimes. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- S. Dorairaj (28 December 2005). "Koyambedu bus terminus gets ISO certification". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- "BRT projects in Indian cities as inclusive transport systems?" (PDF). CEPT University. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Duggan, Chris (15 August 2006). "India's 'Amby' notches up half century". London: The Independent, UK. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- Sankar, Anand (12 April 2006). "When did you last call a taxi?". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 : s. 74(2)(viii)
- "Radio Taxis in India to go up to 174,000". Online edition of The Financial Express, dated 2007-10-28. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Taxis to introduce 'in-Taxi' magazines from July". ChennaiVision. p. 1. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- "Kolkata gets 100 more no-refusal taxis - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Autorickshaw". MSN Encarta. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Getting around Mumbai". iGuide. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
- "Auto fares must be based on meter readings". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "Vroom... enjoy a pre-paid auto ride". The Times of India. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- "Overview Of the existing Mumbai Suburban Railway". Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- "Opening up new frontiers". The Hindu Business Line. 27 October 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Kolkata Metro is now the 17th zone of Indian Railways - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Mumbai monorail to run in two years". The Times of India. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Kolkata's trams to sport a new look soon". Online edition of the Times of India, dated 2009-03-11. 11 March 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- "Trams likely to reappear in new avatar in upcoming smart cities". The Economic Times. 7 February 2010.
- "Ministry plans to introduce trams in mid-size cities". livemint. 10 Sep 2013.
- "Transport in India". International Transport Statistics Database. iRAP. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- "Honda tightens two-wheeler grip in India". Online edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2009-02-03. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Woods, Phil (28 July 2001). "The star of India". Online edition of the Telegraph, dated 2001-07-28. London. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Gentleman, Amelia (7 November 2007). "New Delhi Air Quality Is Worsening, Group Says". New York Times. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Production Trend". Official webpage of the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- "Transport in Brazil". International Transport Statistics Database. iRAP. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- Car Dekho. "Why Chennai turned into 'Detroit Of India'". The Financial Express.
- S. Muralidhar (2005-02-13). "New face to good old Maruti 800". Business Line. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Oconnor, Ashling (11 January 2008). "Tata Nano — world's cheapest new car is unveiled in India". driving.timesonline.co.uk. London. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
- Kurup, Saira (29 March 2009). "Homemade Nano". Online edition of The Times of India, dated 2009-03-29. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- "Bangalore's car pooling venture ropes in celebrities". IANS. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Radio One, CommuteEasy partner to promote car pooling in Bangalore". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Car pooling kicks off in City" (PDF). Bangalore Traffic Police. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Shwetha S. "10,000 plunge into car pool". Online edition of DNA, dated 2009-05-22. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Mahindra Jeeps on The CJ3B Page". Film.queensu.ca. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Company Profile: Tata Motors". Official webpage of the Tata Group. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "The historic Tata Motors journey". Rediff News. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Telco net spurts 44%, to pay Rs 8 a share". Online edition of The Financial Express, dated 1997-05-28. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- Sarkar, John. "SUVs still ruling the roads in India". Online edition of the Economic Times, dated 2008-10-05. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- N. Ramakrishnan. "SUVs set to blaze new trail". Online edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2003-03-13. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- "Mountain Railways of India". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- compiled and edited by Research, Reference and Training Division. (2011). India Yearbook 2011. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. of India. Table 19.1. ISBN 978-81-230-1674-0.
- "Kolkata Metro is now the 17th zone of Indian Railways". The Times of India.
- R.R. Bhandari (2005). Indian Railways: Glorious 150 years. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. pp. 44–52. ISBN 81-230-1254-3.
- "Geography: Railway zones". Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
- Indian Railways Year Book (2006-2007). Ministry of Railways, Government of India. 2007. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
- Guinness Book of World Records. Guinness World Records, Ltd. 2005. p. 93. ISBN 1-892051-22-2.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)". World Heritage List. World Heritage Committee. 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Mountain Railways of India". World Heritage List. World Heritage Committee. 1999. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- Islah, Mufti (14 February 2009). "Kashmir gets rail link, international flights". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Road-Rail Synergy System". Press release, Press Information Bureau, dated 2004-20-05. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "New Konkan Rly service begins". Online edition of the Business Standard, dated 2004-06-16. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "RORO service again on Konkan Railway". Online edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2004-06-11. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- S. Vydhianathan. "Convergence on the Konkan Railway". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2003-14-11. Archived from the original on 27 June 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "ROLL ON- ROLL OFF (RORO) SERVICE ON KONKAN RAILWAY" (PDF). Official webpage of the Konkan Railway Corporation. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "Brief on the matter relating to Nepal" (PDF). Official webpage of Indian Railways. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- Koushik Das. "Construction Work Of New India-Bangladesh Railway Link To Begin In 2015". InSerbia News.
- "Work on new India-Bangladesh railway link from 2015-INews - IBNLive Mobile". IBNlive. 18 June 2014.
- "Indian Railway to build a 15-km track linking Agartala with Bangladesh".
- "Work on Agartala-Akhaura rail link to commence soon". The Times of India.
- "Work on new India-Bangladesh railway link from 2015". The Times of India.
- "India, Bangladesh align rail link in Tripura". Meghalaya Times.
- "India's rail-building challenge". By Sudha Ramachandran. Asia Times. 3 January 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- "India signs trans-Asian railways pact". Indo-Asian News Service. 2 July 2007. p. 1. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- "IRFCA:Indian Railways FAQ:Geography:International". IRFCA, website of the Indian Railway Fan Club. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Indian Road Network". National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- "National Highways". Portal of Government of India. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- Lakshman, Nandini. "The Trouble With India: Crumbling roads, jammed airports, and power blackouts could hobble growth". Online edition of BusinessWeek, dated 2007-03-19. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "Rural Roads: A Lifeline for Villages in India" (PDF). World Bank. p. 3. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PGMSY)". Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. 2 November 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "The World Factbook".
- C. Gopalakrishnan. "Pricing of urban public bus transport in India : a study based on select undertakings". Official webpage of the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- Archived 30 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 27 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Fleet Details". Official webpage of Air India. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Mumbai-Delhi 10th busiest air route". Times of India. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Mumbai airport's traffic control tower design bags award". Thaindian.com. 21 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- http://pib.nic.in/newsite/efeatures.aspx?relid=69345 100 Years of Civil Aviation in India - Milestones
- Beginning of Aviation in India - Bharat Rakshak Archived 27 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Boeing Gets 68 Plane Order from Air-India". Fox News. 11 January 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Airbus wins $2.2bn Indian order". BBC. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- Srivastava, Mehul (1 February 2007). "Jet Airways, Deccan to raise $460 mn for fleet expansion". LiveMint. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Roy, Mithun (30 May 2009). "Jet Airways freezes fleet expansion for now". Online edition of The Economic Times, dated 2009-05-30. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "New Indian Airline Orders 100 Airbus Jets for $6B". Fox News. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Kingfisher Air nets monster jumbo". Online edition of the Financial Express, dated 2005-06-14. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "High fives with $3bn Kingfisher order". Flightglobal.com. 16 June 2005. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- Our Bureau. "GoAir sees profit for second year in a row". The Hindu Business Line.
- "CIA —The World Factbook -- India". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- Archived 27 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Sinha, Saurabh (10 July 2008). "Delhi beats Mumbai to become busiest airport". Online edition of the Times of India, dated 2008-07-10. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Delhi's IGIA edges ahead of Mumbai's CSIA as country's busiest airport". Domain-b.com. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Mumbai airport gets ready for new innings". Travel Biz Monitor. 24 December 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Modi's bumbling aviation boom". The Economist. 21 September 2015.
- Nick Easen CNN Hong Kong (17 September 2003). "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- "Civil Aviation". Government of India Portal. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "World Port Rankings 2007". American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA). 22 April 2009. Archived from the original (XLS) on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - The Country). Malayala Manorama. 2006. p. 515. ISSN 0542-5778.
- "Discover Opportunity: Infrastructure in India" (PDF). India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), An initiative of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. p. 6. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- "10 worst oil spills that cost trillions in losses : Rediff.com Business". Business.rediff.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Mathew, K. M. (ed.). "India: Transportation". Manorama Yearbook 2009. Malayala Manorama. p. 606. ISBN 81-89004-12-3.
- "About Us". Official webpage of the Shipping Corporation of India. Archived from the original on 6 November 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "Shipping Corporation of India". National Portal of India. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "The Maritime Training Institute (MTI)". Official webpage of the Shipping Corporation of India. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "The Hindu Business Line : Minor ports, major trouble".
- "Inland Water Transport Policy : Introduction". Inland Waterways Authority of India. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Narayan Rangaraj; G. Raghuram. "Viability of Inland Water Transport in India" (PDF). INRM Policy Brief No. 13. Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "National Waterways". Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI). Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- "House committee nod for two more national waterways". Indian Express. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- "Two New National Waterways" (PDF). Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI). Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- "Delhi's green transport is its main polluter, finds report". Bangalore. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "CNG Bus Manufacturers in India". Bangalore, India. Archived from the original on 1 September 2004. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "CNG Delhi– the world's cleanest public bus system running on CNG". Geneva: Product-Life Institute. 1998. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "KSRTC :: BEST PRACTICES". Karnataka, India: Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 November 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "KSRTC going that extra mile to conserve fuel". Karnataka India: Online edition of The Hindu. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "State to promote biofuel buses". KAR, IND: The Hindu. 6 Jun 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- The Hans India - India accedes to Ashgabat agreement
This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Transport in India.|
- Follow a young commuter on her way through Mumbai, a web documentary by Deutsche Welle Global Ideas (www.dw.de/globalideas)
- Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
- Mile by Mile, India Paves a Smoother Road to Its Future, New York Times, 4 December 2005.
- Indian rail time table, schedule, fare enquiry, train route, seat availability, running status, Train schedule
- Motor Vehicles Act, 1988