Tic disorder

Tic disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F95
ICD-9-CM 307.2
DiseasesDB 29465
eMedicine neuro/664
MeSH D013981

Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).[1] Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).[2]



ICD10 diagnosis codes are:[3]


In the fourth revision of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), tic disorders were classified as follows:[4]

From DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5

DSM-5 was published in 2013, updating DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000. The following changes were made:[5][6][7][8]


The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, classifies Tourette's and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category.[5]

Tic disorders, in order of severity, are:[5]


Further information: Tic § Differential diagnosis

Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism, stereotypies, chorea, dyskinesias, myoclonus, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.[5]


Education, and a "watch and wait" strategy, are the only treatment needed for many, and the majority of individuals with tics do not seek treatment; treatment of tic disorders is similar to treatment of Tourette syndrome.[11]


Tic disorders are more common among males than females.[5]

A large, community-based study suggested that over 19% of school-age children have tic disorders;[12] the children with tic disorders in that study were usually undiagnosed.

As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder, usually before the onset of puberty.[13] Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. Although a significant amount of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders, further study is needed to confirm the relationship.[14]


  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Tourette's Disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR), ISBN 0-89042-025-4. Available at BehaveNet.com Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  2. Swain JE, Scahill L, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Leckman JF. "Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a decade of progress". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;46(8):947–68 doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e318068fbcc PMID 17667475
  3. ICD Version 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  4. Evidente VG. "Is it a tic or Tourette's? Clues for differentiating simple from more complex tic disorders". Postgraduate medicine. 108 (5): 175-6, 179-82. PMID 11043089 Retrieved on 2007-05-24
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  6. Neurodevelopmental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
  7. Moran, M. "DSM-5 provides new take on neurodevelopment disorders". Psychiatric News. January 18, 2013;48(2):6–23. doi:10.1176/appi.pn.2013.1b11
  8. "Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Retrieved on June 5, 2013.
  9. Ellis CR, Pataki C. "Background: Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder". Medscape. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Plessen KJ. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;22 Suppl 1:S55–60. PMID 23224240 doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0362-x
  11. Roessner V1, Plessen KJ, Rothenberger A, et al. "European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):173-96. PMID 21445724.
  12. Kurlan R, McDermott MP, Deeley C, et al. "Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren and association with placement in special education". Neurology 57 (8): 1383-8. PMID 11673576
  13. Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved on 2005-03-23.
  14. Swerdlow NR. "Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape". Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 5 (5): 329-31. doi:10.1007/s11910-005-0054-8 PMID 16131414

Further reading

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