Through a Glass Darkly (film)
|Through a Glass Darkly|
The original Swedish poster
|Directed by||Ingmar Bergman|
|Produced by||Allan Ekelund|
|Written by||Ingmar Bergman|
Max von Sydow
Johann Sebastian Bach
|Edited by||Ulla Ryghe|
|Distributed by||Janus Films|
Through a Glass Darkly (Swedish: Såsom i en spegel – "As in a Mirror") is a 1961 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman, and starring Harriet Andersson, Gunnar Björnstrand, Max von Sydow and Lars Passgård. The film tells the story of a young woman with schizophrenia spending time with her family on a remote island, and having delusions about meeting God, who appears to her in the form of a monstrous spider.
Bergman structured the film as a three-act play, drawing on his personal experiences and relationships. The film was his first of several shot on Fårö. Through a Glass Darkly was released to positive reviews, including for Andersson's performance, and won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. It is followed by Bergman's thematically related 1963 films Winter Light and The Silence.
The story takes place during a 24-hour period while four family members take their vacation on a remote island, shortly after one of them, Karin, is released from an asylum where she has been treated for schizophrenia. Karin's husband Martin tells her father, David, that Karin's disease is almost incurable. Meanwhile, Minus, Karin's 17-year-old brother, tells Karin that he wishes he could have a real conversation with his father and feels deprived of his father's affection. David is a novelist suffering from "writer's block" who has just returned from a long trip abroad. He announces he will leave again in a month, though he promised he would stay. The others perform a play for him that Minus has written. David, while feigning approval of the play, takes offense since the play can be interpreted as an attack on his character.
That night, after rejecting Martin’s erotic overtures, Karin wakes up and follows the sound of a foghorn to the attic. She faints after an episode in which she hears voices behind the peeling wallpaper. She then enters David's room and looks through his desk and finds his diary, seeing he described her disease as incurable and has a callous desire to record the details of her deterioration. The following morning, David and Martin, while fishing, confront each other over Karin. Martin accuses David of sacrificing his daughter for his art and of being a self-absorbed, callous, cowardly and phony. David is evasive but admits that much of what Martin says is true. David says that he recently tried to kill himself by driving over a cliff but was saved by a faulty transmission. He says that after that, he discovered that he loves Karin, Minus and Martin, and this gives him hope. Meanwhile, Karin tells Minus about her episodes, and that she is waiting for God to appear behind the wallpaper in the attic. Minus is somewhat sexually frustrated, and Karin teases him, even more so after she discovers that he hides a men's magazine. Later, on the beach, when Karin sees that a storm is coming, she runs into a wrecked ship and huddles in fear. Minus goes to her and she seduces her brother.
Minus tells the other men about the incident in the ship and Martin calls for an ambulance. Karin asks to speak with her father alone. She confesses her misconduct toward Martin and Minus, saying that a voice told her to act that way and also to search David's desk. She tells David she would like to remain at the hospital, because she cannot go back and forth between two realities but must choose one. While they are packing to go to the hospital, she runs to the attic where Martin and David observe her actions. She says that God is about to walk out of the closet door, and asks her husband to allow her to enjoy the moment. She becomes fixated on a crack in the wall out of which emerges a spider. The ambulance, a helicopter, flies by the window, making a lot of noise and shaking the door open. Karin moves toward the door eagerly but then she runs from it, terrified, and goes into a frenzy of panic. Karin vanishes and, reappearing in a frenzy, is sedated. When she stands, she tells them of God: an evil-faced spider who tried to penetrate her. She looked into God's eyes, and they were "cold and calm," and when God failed to penetrate her he retreated onto the wall. "I have seen God," she announces.
Karin and Martin leave in the helicopter. Minus tells his father that he is afraid, because when Karin had grabbed him in the ship, he began leaving ordinary reality. He asks his father if he can survive that way. David tells him he can if he has "something to hold on to." He tells Minus of his own hope: love. David and his son discuss the concept of love as it relates to God, and the factor of human father-child relationships in the perception of God. Minus seems relieved and is tearfully happy that he finally had a real conversation with his father: the film ends with his line, "Papa spoke to me."
After Ingmar Bergman made notes on his ideas for the film in his diary, drawing on his personal experiences in planning to meet and reconcile with his parents Karin and Erik Bergman, Ingmar wrote the screenplay on the island of Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. He imagined it as a three-act play, where the acts serve as "mirror panels," showing the same thing from different angles. This led to the phrase from the Biblical passage 1 Corinthians 13 being used as the film's title.
Bergman claimed the inspiration for the character of Karin was a woman he had lived with when he was younger. He reported she heard voices telling her to do things. The scene where David describes his attempted suicide is also inspired by Bergman's real-life attempt in Switzerland, before making Smiles of a Summer Night in 1955. Bergman explained that "while I was preparing the film, I became interested in the human drama surrounding another human being who really was in the process of slipping away." He also referred to his screenplay as "a desperate attempt to present a simple philosophy: God is love, and love is God." Bergman later regretted that message as lacking truth.
While working on Through a Glass Darkly, he was adapting The Seagull by Anton Chekhov in the Royal Dramatic Theatre, and borrowed an idea from The Seagull in having Minus write a play. Bergman dedicated the film to his then-wife Käbi Laretei, with influence from what he described as their "complicated, staged relationship."
Through a Glass Darkly was filmed on the island of Fårö, at cinematographer Sven Nykvist's recommendation. It was Bergman's first film shot there, where he would film several more. Nykvist developed his style with the film, employing few camera movements. The director and cinematographer had very serious conversations in which they rethought how lighting should be employed. Nykvist and Bergman also planned to make Through a Glass Darkly as their first colour film collaboration, but were unhappy with the look of the colour shots they tested.
The film relies on natural sounds to convey silence in the characters' lives, with cello music after the incest scene being an exception. Four interpretations of Sarabande from Suite No. 2 in D minor for Cello, BWV 1008 by Johann Sebastian Bach are used in the film, with cellist Erling Blöndal Bengtsson providing all of them.
Janus Films launched the film's U.S. release in New York City on 13 March 1962, delaying it until the finalists for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film were announced. Janus also promoted its Oscar campaign by screening it for Academy members in Los Angeles before voting occurred. On 19 August 2003, The Criterion Collection released the film on DVD in Region 1, along with Begman's films Winter Light and The Silence and Vilgot Sjöman's documentary Ingmar Bergman Makes a Movie.
In Sweden, the film received positive reviews for its characters, minimalist screenplay, and Harriet Andersson's performance. Variety staff described Through a Glass Darkly as "Not a pleasant film, it is a great one." Time's review praised it as "one of the best and certainly the ripest of Ingmar Bergman's creations." In The New York Times, Bosley Crowther called the film "tightly constructed and starkly realistic," and Andersson "beautifully expressive of the haunting awareness, the agony of madness, that move the girl." U.S. critic Brendan Gill called Andersson "well-nigh perfect." U.K. critic Tom Milne wrote that despite a concept suggesting "angst and self-torture," the film is "warm and highly controlled," and Andersson is brilliant. Stanley Kauffmann, calling it "a Strindbergian study in mental torment," wrote its scenes were "gripping" and Andersson is "stark, beleaguered, volatile."
Much of the criticism focused on the ending, where the characters appear overly calm despite losing Karin, and God is simply equated with love. In 2008, Roger Ebert added the film to his Great Movies list, impressed by Nykvist's lighting and concluding "we're struck by Bergman's deep concern that humans see the world as through a glass, darkly, and are unable to perceive its meaning." In his 2014 Movie Guide, Leonard Maltin gave the film three and a half stars, describing it as a "Moody, evocative story of insanity." The film has a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 19 reviews.
The film won the 1962 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, marking the second year in a row Bergman had won the award, after The Virgin Spring in 1961. Harriet Andersson attended the ceremony to accept the Academy Award on Bergman's behalf. The film was also in competition for the Golden Bear at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival.
|Award||Date of ceremony||Category||Recipient(s)||Result||Ref(s)|
|Academy Awards||9 April 1962||Best Foreign Language Film||Ingmar Bergman||Won|
|8 April 1963||Best Original Screenplay||Ingmar Bergman||Nominated|
|BAFTA Awards||1963||Best Film||Through a Glass Darkly||Nominated|
|Best Foreign Actress||Harriet Andersson||Nominated|
|National Board of Review||21 December 1962||Top Foreign Films||Through a Glass Darkly||Won|
Through a Glass Darkly is sometimes considered the first film in a trilogy that includes Winter Light and The Silence, and focuses on spiritual issues. Bergman writes, "These three films deal with reduction. Through a Glass Darkly – conquered certainty. Winter Light – penetrated certainty. The Silence – God's silence – the negative imprint. Therefore, they constitute a trilogy." He later retracted his claim the films form a trilogy.
Bergman would return to Fårö to shoot several more films, including Persona (1966), Hour of the Wolf (1968), Shame (1968), The Passion of Anna (1969), Fårö Document (1969) and The Touch (1971). Fårö Document is a documentary, while the others use the island for symbolism and have been termed the "island films."
In 2004, producer Andrew Higgie persuaded Bergman to allow a stage version of the work, initially intended for a production by Andrew Upton and Cate Blanchett during their time as Co-Artistic Directors at Sydney Theatre Company. Upton relinquished the project to Jenny Worton, dramaturg of the Almeida Theatre, London, where it was presented in July 2010, starring Ruth Wilson in the lead role of Karin.
- List of films featuring mental illness
- List of submissions to the 34th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
- List of Swedish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- Barbara Young, The Persona of Ingmar Bergman: Conquering Demons through Film, Rowman and Littlefield, 2015, p. 96.
- Birgitta Steene, Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide, Amsterdam University Press, 2005, p. 40.
- Frank Gado, The Passion of Ingmar Bergman, Duke University Press, 1986, p. 267.
- Gado, p. 272.
- Kylo-Patrick R. Hart, "The Auteur Filmmaker as Star: Reading the Films of Ingmar Bergman as Autobiographical Acts," Film and Television Stardom, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, p. 113.
- Jerry Vermilye, Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films, McFarland & Company Publishers, 2002, p. 111.
- Young, p. 89.
- Irving Singer, Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher: Reflections on His Creativity, The MIT Press, 2009, p. 25.
- Gado, p. 278.
- Kylo-Patrick R. Hart, "The Auteur Filmmaker as Star: Reading the Films of Ingmar Bergman as Autobiographical Acts," Film and Television Stardom, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, p. 112.
- Gado, p. 271.
- Alexis Luko, "Through a Glass Darkly (1961)," Sonatas, Screams, and Silence: Music and Sound in the Films of Ingmar Bergman, Routledge, 2016.
- Lise-Lone Marker and Frederick J. Marker, Ingmar Bergman: A Life in the Theater, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 298.
- "12TH BERLIN INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL JUNE 22 - JULY 3, 1962". Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- Tino Balio, The Foreign Film Renaissance on American Screens, 1946–1973, University of Wisconsin Press, 2010, p. 141.
- Janis, Jason (19 September 2003). "A Film Trilogy by Ingmar Bergman: the Criterion Collection". DVD Talk. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- Staff (31 December 1960). "Review: 'Through a Glass Darkly'". Variety. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Cinema: Birth of a Dark Hope". Time. 23 March 1962. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Crowther, Bosley (14 March 1962). "Screen: Ingmar Bergman". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Vermilye, p. 113.
- Kauffmann, Stanley (25 March 1962). "Torment and Time". The New Republic. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (24 July 2008). "Through a Glass Darkly". Rogerebert.com. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- Leonard Maltin, Leonard Maltin's 2014 Movie Guide, A Signet Book, 2013.
- "SÅSOM I EN SPEGEL (THROUGH A GLASS DARKLY) (1961)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "The 34th Academy Awards (1962) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- Raphael Shargel, ed., Ingmar Bergman: Interviews, University Press of Mississippi, 2007, p. 186.
- "WINNERS & NOMINEES". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Films in 1963". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "1962 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- Steene, p. 39
- Jury, Louise (25 June 2010). "The curious case of Blanchett and Bergman". Evening Standard. London. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Billington, Michael (17 June 2010). "Through a Glass Darkly". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "Almeida – Through a Glass Darkly". Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- Bergman, Ingmar; Worton, Jenny (2010). Through a Glass Darkly. London: Nick Hern Books. ISBN 1-84842-123-0.
- Through a Glass Darkly at the Internet Movie Database
- Through a Glass Darkly at AllMovie
- Through a Glass Darkly at the Swedish Film Institute Database
- Criterion Collection essay by Peter Matthews
- Synopsis, reviews and commentary at Bergmanorama: The Magic Works of Ingmar Bergman