Three Lords and Nine Ministers

The Three Lords and Nine Ministers system (Chinese: 三公九卿) was a central administrative system adopted in ancient China that was officially instituted in Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and was replaced by the Three Departments and Six Ministries system (Chinese: 三省六部) since Sui Dynasty (589-618 AD).


Three Lords referred to three highest rank officials in the imperial government, namely:

Nine Ministers comprised all the ministers of importance in the central government. They were:


See also


  1. Wang, 150-151.


  • Li, Konghuai (2007). History of Administrative Systems in Ancient China (in Chinese). Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd. ISBN 978-962-04-2654-4. 
  • Lu, Simian (2008). The General History of China (in Chinese). New World Publishing. ISBN 978-7-80228-569-9. 
  • Wang, Yü-Ch'üan (June 1949). "An Outline of The Central Government of The Former Han Dynasty". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1/2. 12 (1/2): 134–187. doi:10.2307/2718206. JSTOR 2718206. 

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